It is rather difficult to cultivate heat-loving crops in the Urals, since the climate of the region is characterized by a short, cold summer. On average, for the season only 70-80 days do not portend frosts. In such conditions, tomatoes with a long period of ripening do not have time to fully bear fruit. That is why farmers for growing mainly use early-maturing varieties. They are cultivated by seedling method, followed by planting in a protected ground. It is especially important to know exactly when to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse in the Urals, so as not to harm the plants and at the same time collect the maximum yield of tomatoes per season.
Sowing seeds for seedlings
For growing in the conditions of the Urals, early ripe varieties of tomatoes should be preferred. According to the reviews of gardeners, in such conditions, the Moldavian Early, Siberian Early Matters, Bely Filling, and others have recommended themselves well. The fruits of these early ripe tomatoes ripen in 100-115 days after the seedling appeared. At the same time, the varieties are high-yielding and allow to collect up to 15 kg of vegetables per 1m per season.2 soil. Also, the dignity of the varieties is a ripening of fruits, which allows you to get the most out of the plants before the onset of autumn frosts.
Choosing a variety of tomatoes, you can determine the date of planting seeds for seedlings. Suppose it was decided to grow an early maturing variety "Siberian early". The ripening period of its fruits is 114-120 days. To plant tomato seedlings in a greenhouse in the Urals can be in late May - early June. By this time, the plants should have 6-8 true leaves, which is typical for the age of 50-60 days. Also note that from the day of sowing to seed germination takes about a week. Thus, it is not difficult to calculate that the seeds of this early ripe variety should be sown for seedlings in late March - early April.
Modern selection offers gardeners not only early ripe varieties of tomatoes, but also ultra-ripened. The ripening period of their fruit is less than 90 days. An example of this variety can be a tomato "Aurora", "Biathlon", "Gavrosh" and others. It is necessary to sow the seeds of these varieties for seedlings at the end of April.Attention! At 30-40 days of age, the seedlings of tomatoes can be planted in a greenhouse or greenhouse.
It is worth noting that the ultra-early varieties are excellent for growing in the Urals, because they are able to bear fruit even in its northern regions.
It is worth noting that the Urals is distinguished by climatic diversity. So, it is necessary to distinguish the climate of the northern and southern parts of the region. The Northern Urals are indeed characterized by severe weather conditions, but its southern part is quite acceptable for cultivation, including tomato varieties with a long ripening period. The varieties "Grandma's Gift", "Veneta", "Palermo" are available to farmers of the Southern Urals. These tomatoes ripen for 130-140 days, which means that their seeds should be sown on seedlings in early March. The favorable climate of this part of the region allows planting seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse in early May.
Thus, the time of sowing of seed and the time of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse depends on the variety of tomatoes and the climate of the part of the region where the crop will grow.
Lunar Calendar Tips
It is believed that the phases of the moon can favorably or negatively affect plants. During the descent of the moon, it is recommended to plant plants that grow down into the ground, that is, roots. Young, growing moon favorably affects the growth of stems, branches and other components of the aboveground part of the plant. That is why it is recommended to sow tomato seeds and plant plants in the ground during the growth of the moon. The transition of a satellite from one zodiac sign to another can also have an effect on plant growth. Thus, the lunar calendar gardener recommends sowing tomato seeds for seedlings in early March and second decade of April.
If you pay attention to specific dates, then the best time for sowing tomato seeds in seedlings is March 4, 5, April 8, 12, 13. If it is necessary to sow tomato seeds for seedlings at the end of April, then it is better to make it on 26-28 numbers.
When planning planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, you also need to take into account the recommendations of the lunar calendar. Given the climate of the Urals, and choosing dates in late May - early June, it is worth paying attention to the dates of May 24, 25, and June 2, 7, 11.
Skeptics who do not take into account the phases of the moon in their agricultural activities need to understand that the satellite of the Earth has a direct impact on the tides and ebbs of water in the oceans, the life cycles of some animals and even the mood of people. Having such an impact on the occurring terrestrial phenomena, for sure, the Moon will have a beneficial effect on young shoots, speeding up the process of their growing season and making tomatoes stronger.
Features of growing seedlings
When growing tomato seedlings, it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the Ural climate. Seeds before sowing in the ground should be hardened. This will allow tomatoes to grow more suited to frost in early spring, cool summer weather. Seedlings grown from hardened seeds take root better in a new place and subsequently form more ovaries.
To harden tomato seeds in several ways:
- 8-10 days prior to the intended landing, the change must be wrapped in a rag bag and dripped into the snow for 3-4 hours, then warmed at room temperature. The procedure of such hardening should be repeated several times over 3 days. After which the seeds can be treated with disinfectants, growth promoters, germinate and sow on seedlings.
- The method of variable temperatures is popular with gardeners. It consists in placing the swollen, but not germinated seeds for 12 hours in a refrigerator. After this cooling, the seeds are warmed for 6 hours under ambient conditions. Such a hardening cycle must be repeated until the germs appear.
You can learn some other details about hardening tomato seeds in the video:
Seeds hardened during planting produce stronger and more viable sprouts, which will not be afraid of spring cold and summer vagaries of the Ural weather, but despite this, in the process of growing seedlings also need to additionally harden the plants.
It is necessary to prepare tomato seedlings for new conditions 3-4 weeks before the day of the proposed planting. The first hardening procedures should be short and gentle. For example, you can open the window in the room where the containers with seedlings are installed for 10-15 minutes. This will lower the room temperature and saturate the room with oxygen. During such tempering, it is very important to ensure that there is no draft, since it can have a detrimental effect on young plants.
The next stage of hardening may be lowering night temperatures. Suppose seedlings from a room with a temperature of + 22- + 230From it can be taken out on the glazed balcony or loggia, where the temperature is slightly lower. Recommended night temperatures should be approximately + 17- + 180WITH.
A week before planting seedlings of tomatoes in the ground, it is necessary to start carrying out plants to fresh air, if it is planned to plant the plants in open ground, or to the greenhouse, if it becomes later a place of constant growth. To accustom tomato seedlings to new conditions should be gradually increasing the time from half an hour to around-the-clock stay.
The process of hardening seedlings is quite laborious, but it is mandatory for growing tomatoes in the conditions of the Urals. The seedlings prepared in this way will be as much as possible adapted to the new conditions. After planting, hardened plants do not experience stress and do not stop growth.Important! According to the observations of experienced agrarians, it was found that tomatoes grown in compliance with the rules of hardening seedlings produce 30% more fruit than plants that did not undergo heat treatment.
Planting the soil
Tomatoes can be planted in open ground at a time when night temperatures do not fall below +12.0C. At the same time, temperature indicators in the afternoon should be at the level of + 21- + 250C. In the conditions of the Southern Urals, such weather is typical for mid-May, but the northern part of the region is much colder and such conditions can only be expected by mid-June. Planted tomatoes in the greenhouse can be 2-3 weeks earlier.Tip! At the time of planting, seedlings of tomatoes should have 6-8 true leaves. Its height should not exceed 30 cm. The optimum height of tomato seedlings is 20-25 cm.
The trunks of the plants should be strong, and the leaves healthy, green.
In the northern part of the Ural, gardeners should create warm beds in greenhouses. The organic matter laid down in their thickness will additionally warm the roots of the plants and become a source of nutrients. In warm beds, tomatoes are not afraid of short-term cooling, the process of fruiting is more active, the yield increases significantly.
In the harsh climatic conditions in the early stages of the landing, you can resort to the creation of additional measures for heating. So, in the greenhouse, the seedlings that have been planted can be additionally covered with foil on the arches or the greenhouse can be heated. It is also possible to protect young seedlings from frosts by additionally covering the plants with rags or old carpeting.
It is worth noting that the additional shelter in the greenhouse is an effective means of protecting young plants from possible frosts, because the greenhouse itself has impressive dimensions, a large volume of air and a large area of contact with the external environment. During the day, the air and the ground in the shelter warms up sufficiently, but at the same time it cools quickly enough in the evening. Additional shelter in this case allows you to save the heat of the earth throughout the night. Of course, it is not necessary to shelter adult plants in the greenhouse, since they already have enough strength and energy to successfully survive the short-term cooling spells.
Under the conditions of the Urals, it is possible to harvest a full, abundant crop of tomatoes in the greenhouse, but it should be remembered that the early onset of autumn can interrupt the fruiting period by the arrival of frosts, therefore in August tall tomatoes should be pinched. This will allow existing ovaries to mature more quickly. Also, in order to obtain a bountiful harvest in full, at the stage of choosing a variety, it is necessary to give preference to tomatoes, with a friendly ripening of fruits.
Let's sum up
Thus, it is possible to grow tomatoes in the Urals only taking into account climatic features. Late spring, harsh summer and early autumn oblige a gardener to accurately calculate the time of sowing seeds for seedlings and select only suitable varieties. Hardening is an additional measure to prepare young plants for climatic features, but even carrying out the full range of hardening activities, plants need care and attention after planting in the greenhouse. At the same time, only by their labor and diligence a gardener will be able to get really tasty tomatoes grown by his own hands.