In recent years, in many regions of Russia, gardeners have been busy growing Peking cabbage. Residents of the Urals, too, are not lagging behind, experimenting with different varieties of salad vegetables. Someone did everything right away, others are somewhat disappointed. It's all about the features of the climate of the Urals: it is not always possible to resist the vagaries of the weather.
Beijing cabbage can be grown in different ways: seedlings, sowing seeds in the ground or in the greenhouse. Some vegetable growers of the Urals manage to get quite good yields of salad vegetables on balconies and loggias. Let's see how to grow Peking cabbage to the Urals people.
Vegetable growers of the Urals should know this.
Residents of the Urals should understand that the harvest depends on many factors, including the climate. In heat or cold peking cabbage begins to lag behind in development. Cultivation in the conditions of the Urals of this vegetable is not much different from the basic agrotechnical requirements: you need to monitor the light, the amount of moisture in the soil.
The harvest depends on the climatic conditions and the planting period of the peking cabbage. If the temperature outside is too hot, and the nights are bright, then the plant will give strength to flowering and feathers, and the fruit will not develop.
Cultivation of late varieties of Peking cabbage in the Urals by sowing directly into the ground makes weather conditions more difficult. If, however, you like exactly late variety, you must definitely grow seedlings. Although in the presence of a greenhouse, you can try late varieties (it is best to use hybrids) for autumn consumption.
To grow Peking cabbage in the Urals, you need to remember:
- It responds well to watering and feeding.
- Transplant slows growth.
- Soils need neutral or slightly acidic. Clay areas are not suitable.
Colorized cabbage - what is the reason
Gardeners living in the Urals, often lose their harvest because of the flowering of Chinese cabbage. It is clear that the head is not formed. This concerns not only beginner vegetable growers, but also those who have a lot of experience in growing Chinese cabbage.
What is the reason? It lies in the biological properties of the plant.
- For a vegetable you need a short light day.
- Heat is destructive.
To solve the problem of growing a rich harvest of cabbage in the Urals is easy. It is enough to choose the landing time correctly so that before the onset of a long daylight day and the heat, Peking cabbage has had time to ripen. As a rule, it takes 40-60 days to twist the forks.
Strong seedlings - a pledge of harvest
When growing seedlings of Peking cabbage in the Urals, the seeds of early varieties will have to be sown at the end of March. If Beijing salad vegetables need for consumption in winter, the seeds are sown in early June. The pips are immediately placed in separate containers. Can be used for cabbage seedlings peking cups, tapes, peat tablets.
Many novice gardeners ask how this method is better than planting seeds in boxes. The answer is simple: when transplanting seedlings from Beijing cabbage, you can damage the root system.
When growing cabbage of this type in the Urals, they pour fertile soil into cassettes or plastic cups, add a little wood ash. The earth is shed in advance with boiling water with dissolved potassium permanganate. Depth of seeding seed no more than a centimeter. Capacity covered with glass or package, put in a warm, well-lit place.
As a rule, quality seeds sprout in 3-4 days. Cover with cabbage immediately removed. To seedlings grown in the Urals, do not stretch, reduce air temperature. Lighting should be at least 6 hours.
Further care of the seedlings in the Urals is no different from other regions - watering, surface loosening, feeding. By the time of planting, the cabbage seedlings form a powerful root system and 4-5 leaves, as in the photo.
Attention! Do not expose Peking cabbage to draft.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Choosing a place for planting bikes
For planting cabbage of this type, select those beds in the area where cruciferous plants were not grown. Regardless of whether you live in the Urals or in another region of Russia, you need to plant seedlings in a garden with fertile neutral soil.A warning! Vegetables grow poorly on acidic soils, taste is lost.
It is necessary to dig up the ridge in the autumn, add compost or humus, for each square about 4 kilograms. In the spring, low ridges are piled up at a distance of up to half a meter. The step between the bushes of Beijing lettuce cabbage in a row is at least 40 cm.
A few days before planting (this is approximately towards the end of May), the ground is poured with boiling water with potassium permanganate. It is necessary for the prevention of keels. When planting seedlings, you need to monitor the depth of planting. To each well add a teaspoon of wood ash. After this, the cabbage is carefully watered so as not to blur the roots.
The nature of the Urals is capricious, the return of frosts in late May - early June does not surprise the locals. Although Peking cabbage can withstand up to -3 degrees, it is not worth the risk. It is better to tighten temporary arches over the landings and cover with any material.
Growing in a greenhouse
If there is a reliable greenhouse, then it can be used both for obtaining early seedlings, and for growing vegetables during the whole vegetative period.
Peking lettuce grows best if it is surrounded by other plants, except cruciferous ones. Such landings are called compacted. Good neighbors in the greenhouse are cucumbers, tomatoes, early sown dill, parsley, celery. While these plants are gaining momentum, the peking will already be ready for harvest.Attention! In the conditions of the Urals in the greenhouse, you can get the flow production of tasty and healthy vegetables, sowing seeds at different times.
So that the plants do not interfere with each other, the rows are made at a distance of at least 20 cm, between seeds up to 10 cm. It remains to decide when to sow cabbage in the greenhouse in the Urals. The first crops carried out in March, if you want to get a harvest in June. Sowing the seeds in February for seedlings in the apartment, the first pedestrians can be cut by May 9.Comment! For the cultivation of Chinese cabbage for early cutting, use varieties with a short vegetative period.
Growing cabbage immediately in the ground
In the Urals, you can grow vegetables and direct sowing of seeds in the ground. Works are performed at the end of June. The place is chosen well lit, but in the afternoon sun rays on the ridge should not fall.
After culling, processing the seeds are soaked for germination. This technique helps to reduce the consumption of seed. Seeds are laid out on 2-3 things at a distance of 30-40 cm, sowing depth up to 2 cm. The distance between the rows is about half a meter.
After sowing, to speed up the seedlings, the bed is covered with any covering material. Emerging shoots inspect, choose the strongest, the rest pull out.A warning! Pulling extra plants is not recommended: you can damage the root system.
There are practically no special differences in the care of plants in the Urals. Salad cabbage likes abundant watering, but, most importantly, do not overdo it. Swimming in the soil can lead to rotting roots, the development of various diseases. Such an environment like many pests.
Plants during the vegetative period need fertilizing both in open ground and in the greenhouse. You can water the infusion of mullein, bird droppings, slurry of rabbit droppings or fermented grass.A warning! Plants like friable soil, it is desirable to flush up the earth after watering, but it is impossible to spud Peking cabbage.
About the rules of cultivation of Peking cabbage:
Diseases and pests
Pekingok in any locality, including when grown in the Urals, sometimes gets sick or is attacked by pests. The plant becomes sluggish, growth stops. It is urgent to find out the reason.
As a preventive measure - choosing the right place for Chinese cabbage. If on the bed earlier grew turnips, radishes, mustard, then, most likely, pathogens and pests in it can remain even after the severe Ural frosts. It is better to plant bake after potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers and all kinds of leguminous plants.
Among the most common diseases are fungal, blackleg, keel, speckled mosaic leaves. Here are the roots affected by fungal disease and black leg. See the photo below.
With regards to pests, there are no less of them in the Urals than in other regions. The most dangerous "devourers" are shown in the photo.
There are also slugs with snails, which also eat the leaves.
The photo below shows the root, damaged by the cabbage fly larvae. As a result, he atrophied, the plant died.
How to grow healthy cabbage
As a preventive measure against virtually all leaf-eating insects, plants are sprayed with an infusion of ash and tobacco. You can sprinkle these substances around the soil of vegetables.
Slugs, snails, cabbage fly will not be able to harm the cabbage, if sprinkled around a mixture of black and red pepper.
It is not easy to cope with the cruciferous flea as it jumps from plant to plant. You can, of course, cover the landing with special materials. But it is best to spray all cruciferous pesticides.
Here, as in the photo, looks like cabbage, on which cruciferous flea is feasted.
Here they are - pests of cabbage: caterpillar of the cabbage butterfly and aphid.
Peking lettuce is a multicultural plant. It grows better surrounded:
- legumes and grain plants;
- among cucumbers, onions, salads;
- tomatoes and beets;
- various colors, including marigolds;
- among the herbs: celery, spinach, basil.
Growing Chinese cabbage in the Urals is a fascinating business. Look at the photo, what kind of acquires your site. Beauty - landscape designers envy!
As you can see, the cultivation of Peking vegetables is possible in the Urals. The main thing is the implementation of agrotechnical techniques and love of crop.
For the Urals we saved some useful tips on growing cabbage:
- If the area is clay soil, add a large amount of compost or humus: salad vegetables will thank for a rich harvest.
- Spray the plants with infusions of herbs and wood ash. It is a top dressing and pest control tool.
- When growing cabbage in the Urals, the soil needs to be mulched with mowed grass, so moisture is better preserved, plants get nutrients.
- If you grow phacelia, vetch, oats, which are excellent sideratami, you can plant cabbage directly on these ridges. Then the accompanying plants are cut and used as mulch.
Good luck to you, gardeners of the Urals! Do not be afraid to experiment, grow different cultivated plants on your plots.