Gladioli are the most popular flowers in the recent past that children gave to teachers on September 1st. This is not surprising, because they simply grow on the garden plot, while they look very impressive: large, bright inflorescences on a high stem. To grow gladiolus in Siberia, you need to make a little more effort than in an area whose climate is not so severe.
Types of gladioli
Gladioluses (another name for the swordfish) belong to the iris family. To date, there are more than 300 species and 5,000 varieties of these plants. Gladiolus - bulbous-tuberous perennial flowers. Their homeland is Africa.
All species can be divided:
The size of the inflorescences:
- small: flowers are small, arranged in groups along the stem;
- medium: not large flowers;
- large: large, bright flowers;
- giants: flowers reach 20 cm in diameter.
By flower type:
By color buds:
- one-color: gladioli come in almost all basic color schemes;
- with additional flowers: for example, crimson-pink.
By flower arrangement:
- on the one hand in the spike-type inflorescence;
- from two sides in the spike-type inflorescence;
- spirally in the ear-shaped inflorescence;
- in the form of a funnel.
By flowering time after planting:
- early (include ultra-early and early-medium);
- late (there are varieties medium-late and very late).
For the cultivation of gladioli in Siberia, one should stop the choice on varieties with an early or medium flowering period, so that they can mature in the conditions of a short summer. Preferably, if gladioli are from domestic breeders, since such varieties are more suitable for planting in Siberia.Comment! Gladiolus bulbs are edible: before they were crushed with onions and baked in the form of cakes.
They were also used as a painkiller for toothache and as a diuretic. In the first century, magical qualities were attributed to gladiolus: it was believed that the bulb hung on the neck of a warrior would save him from death and bring victory.
Preparation for planting gladioli
To prepare for planting should choose the right place and properly handle the soil.
Choosing a landing site
When choosing a place where it is planned to grow flowers, it should be borne in mind that they will grow best on the sunny side in the absence of strong winds. If the plants are planted in the shade, the beginning of their flowering will move to a later date, and the gladiolus itself will be less resistant.
If gladioli are planted in a place where there are no natural barriers that protect against the wind, they should be made by yourself. To do this, around the flowers you can plant herbaceous plants that give a lot of greenery (for example, horse beans or beans).
Soil selection and preparation
Gladioli will not grow on marsh and limestone soil. Can be grown on both light and heavy soils. Ideal for them - loamy, with a pH of 7 (neutral) soil rich in humus.
Preparing the soil for planting in the fall
Before digging up the earth, you can add bone meal to it: per 100 cubic meters - 5 kg. At a depth of 30 cm to make manure. Organic matter is important for bulbs that have a large enough need for humus substances.Attention! Manure must necessarily be rotted. If you make fresh - may appear fungus and rot.
If the soil is heavy, the leaves of trees (not rotten) should be added to the manure: they will not allow the ground to thicken, the soil will be more loose, and more air will penetrate into it.
If the soil is too light, then it should be compacted, adding clay and fine peat to the manure, which should be well ventilated.
Preparing the soil for planting in the spring
When the spring soil thaws, it should be applied superphosphate fertilizer in the same amount as bone meal.
Heavy soils are plowed 20 cm deep, light sandy ones are loosened. The land is equal, harrowed and cleared from the roots of weeds.
Planting gladiolus seedlings
When growing gladioli in Siberia, it is more expedient to plant the plants in the ground with seedlings - thus, the flowers will have time to please the summer residents with their beauty.
To prepare gladioli for planting, the onions are pre-cleaned of the casing or are soaked for a day in water at a temperature of +30 degrees. Landing is made in early February.
Boxes for seedlings are filled with wet soil with humus (can be sawdust), “kids” are planted and are poured on top with 1 cm of soil. Tara is placed in a place where there is enough light. Care must be taken to keep the ground wet.
Planted seedlings in the ground, when there will be no night frost. You should be extremely careful when transplanting: it is better not to affect the root system. Some time after transplanting seedlings need to be protected from sunlight: the plants need to be shaded. You can also cover the sprouts with a nonwoven fabric for several days.
Preparation of bulbs for planting in the ground
You must first remove damaged and diseased bulbs. The remaining tubers should be cleaned from dry shells. Then within two hours the planting material is etched with mercury preparations.
Tip! In order for the flowers to be of high quality - pick up the bulbs with a diameter of not more than 5 cm and a spherical shape.
If the tubers are larger or flattened, it means that they have partially degenerated: the quality of the flowers will be low, the plant will bloom later than expected and the tubers may die during storage.
After dressing, the day before the day of planting, it is recommended to place the bulbs in a solution of trace elements for 16 hours.
The composition of the solution may include the following substances:
- potassium permanganate;
- copper sulphate;
- zinc sulphate;
- boric acid;
- cobalt nitrate.
Plant either a replacement bulb, or "baby", obtained in the fall after digging in the tubers.
Planting replacement bulbs
To ensure proper planting and care of gladioli in Siberia, they begin to be planted when the soil is heated to a minimum of +8 degrees. You can plant in furrows or beds. In heavy soil need to sow the bulbs to a depth of not less than 5 cm and not more than 8 cm, in the light - 10 centimeters. If the land for planting is dry, water must be poured into the wells.
It is better not to plant tubers of different size next: a large bulb will develop earlier and will interfere with the growth of small ones. Do not forget to install a sign on the place of planting with the name of the variety and the date of planting.
Planted "baby" should be at a depth of 3 cm after the ground thawed and the soil is still quite wet. To prepare gladioli for planting in the spring, a hard shell should be removed from the bulb or a baby should be soaked in water at +30 degrees for 24 hours. Without these manipulations in 60% of cases the bulb will not rise.
To gladiolus bloomed on time and had beautiful buds, you need to properly care for them.
After planting, until the gladioli have risen (about a month) they cannot be watered, so that the earth does not become compacted and allows air to pass through. Otherwise, root development may be impaired.
After the gladioli have risen, it is necessary to control that the soil is moderately wet (usually watering is done every three days), otherwise the ears can be deformed and the quality of flowers will decrease.
It is best to water with mechanical sprays, except for the period of blooming gladioli: if the water gets on the buds, they will become spotty.
During the growth of gladioli it is necessary to ensure that the soil is weed-free. It is also necessary from time to time to loosen the ground, so that air can flow to the roots.
In the presence of sandy soil, after sprouts appear, the beds should be mulched with peat or covered with a layer of humus of 2 cm - thus, moisture will remain in the soil.
Top dressing and gladiolus fertilizer
When growing gladioli under the conditions of Siberia, the use of trace elements is important. They speed up the beginning of flowering for half a month, help plants protect themselves from diseases and affect the size of the buds. A solution of trace elements (the composition may be the same as when soaking bulbs before planting) should be sprayed plants from early August.
In addition to fertilizers applied to the soil in autumn, it is necessary to feed gladiolus with minerals three more times:
- At the end of the month after planting - ammonium nitrate (up to 4 kg per 100 cubic meters);
- after the development of the fourth leaf - potassium nitrate in the same dosage;
- after the appearance of buds - with phosphorus and potassium in the same amount.
General rules for the care of flowers
Gladioluses need to be tied up when the inflorescences begin to appear. To do this, at the edges of the beds, you can drive in pegs, with which you can stretch the cord at a height of half a meter - it will be more convenient to tie up the plants to it.
Emerging branches of the heads of inflorescences need to be removed. It is also necessary to tear the buds, which have already faded. When the spike of the inflorescence has already faded - it should be cut, otherwise it will appear seeds that are bad for the development of the bulbs.
How to cut and transport gladioli
Stems need to be cut in the early morning when the first bud will bloom. This should be done extremely carefully so as not to scratch the leaves. After cutting a flower, a plant in the garden should have at least 4 leaves left so that the bulb can mature and be stored for a long time.
To prepare gladiolus for long-term transportation, cut plants must be put in water for 2 hours in a cold place. It is better to cut them off before the gladioli start to bloom.
Cut flowers can stand in vases for up to two weeks. This requires daily to change the water in the vessel and remove the withered flowers. Before you put the stems in a vase, you need to shorten the leg by three centimeters.
Reproduction of gladioli
The reproduction of flowers produced by the bulbs: if you use the seeds, the plant can be obtained with characteristics other than the parent. After planting in the spring of one bulb, in the fall you get up to two substitutes and a few small ones - “kids” (the quantity depends on the quality of tubers and the variety of flowers).
There are some varieties that do not give bulbs at all or give in small quantities. To increase the number of "babies", before planting gladioli, the tubers should be cut vertically with a knife into 2 or 4 lobes so that each piece has an "eye" (escape bud) and roots.
Each time after cutting one tuber, the knife must be treated with alcohol or another means for disinfection. Place the cut bulbs need to process charcoal and sulfur (mixture).
How to cut a bulb, see the video:
Comment! As a result of research, it was found that vertically divided bulbs yield up to three times more yield in the fall than from whole tubers.
The division of the bulbs into 2 parts does not affect the time of onset of flowering, and when cut into 4 parts, it shifts 14 days later.
For the rapid multiplication of flowers planted "kids." The disadvantage of this method is the lack of germination.
Cleaning and storage of gladioli
After the autumn frosts come, the bulbs must be dug. This rule is especially important for the cultivation of gladioli in Siberia: if the bulbs are left in the ground for the winter, they may die. To dig up the tubers, you need to cut the stems directly above the bulb.Tip! To collect all the small onions, you need to sift through a sieve a layer of earth up to 15 cm deep, left after digging gladioli.
Dug tubers need to be put in the box, the bottom of which consists of a grid, and rinse them with water, clearing from the ground. Then the bulbs are placed in bags of gauze and soaked for 15 minutes in granozan (solution 0.25%) or ceresan (solution 0.35%) for dressing. After that, the tubers are dried in the sun and ventilated.
The bulbs, which have dried, are cleaned in the box. Do not forget to specify the type of gladioli on the container. Boxes need to be put in a place with air temperature from +25 to +30 for 10 days. The place must be well ventilated. Tubers should be turned over periodically. This is necessary so that roots and old bulbs can be easily separated from the total mass of tubers.
After 10 days, when the old tubers and roots are removed, the bulbs should be placed in boxes with a mesh bottom (can be laid in two rows) or in gauze bags. Sign a variety of gladioli stored in a specific container.
About 5 days the bulbs are stored at air temperature from +15 to +18 degrees, in the following days in the room should not be below +4 and above +10 degrees.
Boxes are best kept on shelves of timber: this ensures a uniform circulation of air. You need to make sure that in the room where gladioli are stored, there is no high humidity, so as not to provoke an early distillation of the plants.
During storage of gladioli, the bulbs must be periodically inspected to remove diseased tubers in time.
Diseases and pests of gladioli
Like any plant, gladiolus is susceptible to diseases and attacks of pests.
The main pests of gladioli:
- cabbage scoop: caterpillar, eating away holes in flowers and leaves;
- field slug: damages bulbs and stems;
- striped nutcracker (wireworm): damages roots and bulbs;
- Medvedka: damages the roots, bulbs and stems.
The main diseases of gladioli:
- dry rot of tubers and yellowing of gladioli;
- small leaves and firm rot of tubers;
- brown (gray) rot of gladioli;
- bacterial scab.
Prevention of gladiolus diseases
To reduce the possibility of gladiolus diseases, the following conditions must be met:
- Etching the bulbs before planting.
- Do not plant flowers in the same place until 5 years have passed.
- The distance between planted gladioli should be large enough so that diseased plants could not infect healthy ones.
- Proper care for gladiolus.
- Timely harvesting.
- Proper storage of bulbs.
- Making the correct feeding in the required quantity.
- Twice a month, during the growth of flowers, gladioli should be treated with Bordeaux mixture (1-2%) or zineb solution (from 0.70% to 0.75%). The composition must be added casein glue at the rate of 20 grams. 10 liters or wheat flour 50 grams for the same amount of liquid.
- Infected plants should be excavated and burned to avoid spreading the disease to healthy flowers.
By meeting the conditions of proper planting and proper care for gladioli, in Siberia you can grow a good crop of these bright, beautiful flowers. In addition, gladiolus contains a huge amount of vitamin C: as much as in the hips. Having dried the leaves in the summer, and brewing them in the winter, you can avoid beriberi and colds.