Processing cucumbers in the greenhouse - the procedure is not just desirable, but also mandatory. Indoors, where it is always warm and humid, ideal conditions have been created for the reproduction of any insects, ticks, bacteria and fungi. In addition, they always have food in the greenhouse in the form of fruits, leaves or roots.
The treatment of any vegetable, fruit and ornamental crops is understood as a set of actions aimed at improving growth conditions, eliminating pests and pathogens, as well as creating preventive protective barriers.
A greenhouse is an enclosed space where pathogens and pests come mainly from the soil or when opened during the ventilation period, therefore preventive measures must begin with tillage and the greenhouse itself.
The greatest number of pathogens and amateurs to feed on cultivated plants is hidden in the upper layer of the soil - at a depth of 5 to 10 centimeters.
Start preparing the greenhouse for the new crop should be in the fall. This is if you are not engaged in year-round cultivation of crops. If winter is the same busy time for you as summer, then preventive tillage should be done between planting seedlings or seeds.
Tillage is the following procedures.
- Remove all plant residues from the ground surface. If they are not infected with pathogens, they can be folded into a compost pit. With obvious signs of damage, they should be burned.
- The next stage of soil preparation in the greenhouse is treatment with 7% copper sulfate solution. It is necessary to spray not only the soil itself, but also the space around the beds.
- After two weeks, dig up the earth with the turning of the layers to a depth of 20-30 centimeters.
- Again, treat the soil with copper sulfate.
This concludes the main cycle of the preparatory period. Further processing is carried out as necessary.
For example, before planting seedlings, the hole can be poured with boiling water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Both methods have their pros and cons. Boiling water warms up the soil well, increases seedling survival rate, creates an opportunity for rapid growth. However, its effect is limited to small space and time. Within an hour, bacteria, fungi, and multicellular animals from untreated soil will take the place of dead, harmful and beneficial microorganisms.Important! The use of potassium permanganate will allow to save the plant from contact with dangerous organisms for a long time.
In addition, the soil is enriched with manganese, which is of great importance for the successful growth of cucumbers. You can combine these two processing methods by pouring boiling water with a solution of potassium permanganate.
The process of decontamination of the greenhouse premises itself can also be attributed to the preparatory stage.
This should be done using a solution of copper sulfate increased concentration. Regular processing should be subjected to the entire greenhouse from the inside.
Periodic painting of wooden and metal structures, of course, will create unfavorable conditions for dangerous organisms, but it is difficult to paint every six months, and the treatment of vitriol is a quick and cheap process.
In prophylactic treatment before planting cucumbers in the greenhouse there is one subtlety. Despite the fact that the measures are of a preventive nature, it is necessary to influence the causative agents of diseases and pests at the time of their transition to active life.Important! Spraying during the period when the earth has not yet thawed out will not make any sense.
Now all pesticides are released for environmental safety with a short period of action, so that until microorganisms and larvae of arthropods wake up, all your funds will already weaken their effect. It is best to carry out the treatment after thawing ten centimeters of soil in the period of establishing warm sunny weather, but ten days before planting.
Seed treatment is also a preventive measure. Often for this you can use the same tools as for the treatment of adult plants. In this case, it is necessary to combine both antibacterial and antifungal agents.
The main diseases of cucumbers
Cucumbers - a culture in demand, but troublesome. This guest from the tropics is particularly exposed to local pests and diseases. This is especially true for greenhouse cultivation, where everyone lives well, both for cucumbers and for those who love to eat their juicy leaves and fruits.
Cucumbers in the greenhouse may be affected by the following diseases:
- ordinary mosaic;
- olive blotch;
- powdery and downy mildew;
- gray, white and root rot.
All these diseases can manifest themselves at the most unexpected moment. Activation of pathogens may be associated with improper care for cucumbers.Attention! White and root rot can infect plants due to sudden temperature fluctuations, excessive watering, lack of ventilation systems, and excessive shading.
This means that not only preliminary treatment of everything that is in the greenhouse, but also the provision of an optimal mode for growing cucumbers should be attributed to preventive measures.
If, despite good processing, your cucumbers still get sick, you need to:
- optimize watering;
- thin out too thick plantings;
- provide warming up of the greenhouse with a sharp decrease in air temperature;
- irrigate only with warm water;
- provide automatic airing.
In order for cucumber diseases not to take you by surprise, stock up in advance with the ash from burning organic residues. Just a part of the ash can be brought into the soil, and part of it can be put in reserve - it will come in handy in order to sprinkle leaves damaged by diseases and pests.
Features of treatment for different lesions
The experience of many generations of farmers and the work of scientists have created a wide range of means to combat the diseases and pests of cucumbers.
- An infusion of red pepper with tobacco dust, ash and soap. It is necessary to grind 30 grams of fresh peppers, add 200 grams of tobacco dust there, pour all this with 10 liters of hot water. The mixture must be kept for 24 hours, after which one tablespoon of concentrated soap solution from 72% of household soap and 3 spoons of wood ash should be added to it. It is possible to process this amount of solution with a space of approximately 10 square meters. The tool is effective for fighting small organisms that drink the sap of the plant. If there is no pepper, you can do with a solution of soap and ash. Its presence on the leaves creates a caustic protective layer that is insurmountable for small organisms.
- Karbofos. In 20 liters of warm water, you must add 2 tablespoons of karbofos. This solution can be processed not only the cucumbers themselves, but also the entire greenhouse.
Karbofos used from all multicellular animals that damage the leaf plate. It is effective in fighting sucking and gnawing insects, mites and their larvae.
- Inta-Vir. This tool, which is used to combat aphids, whitefly, thrips and gnawing larvae of beetles and butterflies. Cypermethrin, which is the main active ingredient of Inta-Vira, does not kill insects, but paralyzes them, as a result they stop eating and die from exhaustion.
Dosage of the drug - 1 tablet per 10 liters of warm water. You can use only fresh solution, since its action does not last long. The danger of Inta-Vir is that it has a negative effect on pollinators, so it is better to use it in the absence of flowers or at night, making processing at dusk, when pollinating insects no longer fly. During the night, the drug will lose its strength, and will not cause significant harm to the beneficial insects. Preventive use of Inta-Vira is not advisable. Spraying this drug should be done only if you see those kozyavok, which are ingested into your cucumbers.
In greenhouses, there is a high risk of developing fungal diseases. This is due to the need to maintain a high level of temperature and humidity.
Fungicides that can be used in the greenhouse are divided into the following groups:
- Copper-based drugs. These include the copper sulfate mentioned here - the most popular and cheap means. In addition, in the struggle for the harvest of cucumbers, it is advisable to use Bordeaux mixture, Oxyh, Kurzat, Ordan, Abiga-Pik. A distinctive feature of copper-based drugs is their versatility.
- Drugs based on sulfur. These include such well-known fungicides as garden sulfur, Thiovit Jet, Cumulus. Gray has long been fumigated all the rooms where the development of fungal infections is possible. If signs of fungal diseases have already appeared in the greenhouse, then it is necessary to treat with the sulfur-containing preparations not only cucumbers, but also the whole greenhouse.
- Carboxins. This group includes drugs such as Vitaros and Previkur. Usually they are used in the fight against rot and downy mildew.
- Topaz. This drug is known to all as an effective tool to combat powdery mildew. It can be used for the treatment of an already manifested disease, and as a prophylactic treatment, if there is a suspicion of the possibility of infection of cucumbers. It is necessary to process plants at least three times with an interval of 10 - 15 days.
Fungal diseases are common in all agricultural areas where high levels of humidity are maintained.Tip! Do not wait for your plants to be amazed. Just spray a few times a season.
Especially effective is the use of sulfur-containing drugs. Firstly, they, as a rule, are not dangerous, and secondly, they are simultaneously feeding with sulfur, which is not always contained in the soil in the right quantities.
Any spraying of vegetative plants should be carried out carefully, processing the leaves from all sides. And one more rule - before planting seedlings, be sure to treat with some drug that does not have a strong effect on the environment. Repeat preventive treatment after the young cucumbers will release the first mustache. Perhaps after this you do not have to resort to emergency measures.