Long since goat milk is popular: a healthy product that does not cause allergies. That is why it is widely used in baby food. The question of choosing a pet should be treated carefully.
There are meat and dairy breeds.Attention! If an animal is purchased for milk production, then it is better not to pick up goats than the Megrelian breed of goats.
What is this animal, how to care for it - we consider these questions in detail.
This breed was bred on the territory of Western Georgia in 35 years of the last century. There are two types: upland and low
The creators are ordinary peasants from Megrelia, who did not possess special knowledge.
Today, breeders often use Georgian goats as donors to improve a breed. After all, representatives of the Megrelian breed are the most highly productive.
Highland goats are distinguished by a strong constitution:
- Extended torso, broad chest.
- Strong limbs, set straight.
- elongated head with graceful ears, standing straight.
- Beautiful horns resembling a saber. If you look closely, they look like the Latin letter "S".
- Height at withers is about 70 cm.
The color of wool can be different, from white to light gray. There are also roan, with red-brown spots.Important! The hair of representatives of the Megrelian breed is rather coarse, since it consists mainly of guard hairs.
Attention! Animals of the Megrelian breed belong to the dairy, so the live weight, compared to other breeds, is not so great.
- Goats most often reach weight from 38 to 45 kg. Males - up to 55 kg. Some Megrelian goats can weigh up to 60.
- Females often kittens twins. On one hundred goats you can get litter equal to 160 kids. Productive flock replenished without difficulty.
- With proper feeding per year, one Megrelian goat gives up to 900 kg of tasty, healthy milk, fat content up to 4%. From it you can make a variety of dairy products, such as cheese, cottage cheese, cheese.
Attention! Before chasing the adult Megrelian goats or kids into the pasture, they are watered.
Drinking from a puddle can cause infection. In the summer heat, the goats are watered twice a day, in the winter, in the presence of wet food, one time is sufficient.A warning! Hot goats can not be watered - catch a cold.
Do not use galvanized dishes for feeders so as not to poison the animal with zinc. They put vessels on elevations, reaching the goat's chest, for the kids, the troughs and the feeders are set below. Water and feed are given in separate containers. Many kozovody make automatic drinkers - the water is always clean. In winter, the water must be heated.
What to feed
- They feed animals with oats, barley, corn kernels. Care must be taken that water does not enter the feeders with dry food.
- If fed cleaning from potatoes, then they need to wash and boil. Sprinkle with salt and mixed fodder on top.
- Root vegetables can be fed raw, but thoroughly chopped, especially for kids.
- Good to give various mash. Steamed oats, oatmeal, food residues from the table, carrots, beets, cabbage will do. Milk goats, eating wet food, add milk.
- In a special trough, there should always be fodder salt (up to 8 kg of salt are needed per goat or goat per year, a little less goatlings).
- In winter, goats, except for hay, are given harvested brooms and pine needles. They are hung at such a level that goats and kids can reach them.
Feeding is carried out several times a day:
- in the morning - grain and roots.
- in the afternoon - hay.
- in the evening crushed grain, hay.
In the summer, the Megrelian goats, along with the goats, graze on the high mountains, in winter, if the weather permits, at the foot of the mountains.
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Rules for the care of dairy goats
For goats Megrelsky breed need a special room, it is called the goatling. The height of the room is about 3 meters. Square:
- on one mother with a litter of at least 2.5 square meters. m;
- lonely goat - 1.5 m;
- male - 2 m;
- goat - up to 3 m.
In the room for goats should be dry, drafts are unacceptable. In winter, the temperature is maintained from +6 to -7 degrees. In the presence of a large number of animals, additional heating is not required - the goats warm it with their breath. But where they contain kids, you need to use heating.
Males are kept separately from queens, so that they do not go prematurely. In addition, the neighborhood of a goat next to dairy goats can adversely affect milk: it acquires an unpleasant taste.
For Megrelskoy breed acceptable stall content or free grazing. Kids graze with adult animals.Attention! Be sure to arrange in the courtyard canopy. In summertime, the Megrelian goats hide from the heat, and in winter from the snow.
All about okota
If the Megrelian goat does not get sick with anything, during the lambing it does not need the help of a person. Kids appear 20 to 22 weeks after mating. The owner records this period in order to know when the goat will be kitted, to be weaned from the general herd.
It is necessary to prepare in advance for lambing:
- The room where the lambing will take place must be clean, dry. Disinfection is required. The walls and ceiling are whitened with a solution of lime. If it is dark in the goat house, additional lighting is provided.
- The room is aired, a fresh litter is laid on the floor, the thicker the better.
- For future kids, a nursery is made, with an area of at least two square meters with a feeding trough and a trough.
It is possible to understand that the time has come for lambing according to the behavior of the goat: she is worried, often refuses to feed. The udder swells, becomes dense, the nipples spread out to the sides. Mucus appears in the swollen genitals.
How to feed a goat after lambing
Megrelian goats, like other representatives of this troubled tribe, are watered with sweet warm water. Carbohydrates are needed for animal recovery. Then the drinker is filled with clean warm water, hay is placed in the feeder.
The digestive system of goats after lambing can fail, so feeds that are easily digested should be used for feeding:
- bran up to 300 grams, four times a day;
- if the lambing occurred in the summer, they give fresh grass, in the winter - hay;
- branches and brooms;
- salt at least 10 grams.
How to feed kids without a goat
Since Megrelian goats belong to the dairy breed, it is not recommended to allow the kids to be fed. They are fed artificially. Get a special bottle with a pacifier in advance. So the kid is easier to suck. In addition, the pharynx is uniform, casein lumps do not have time to form.
On the first day, kids are given colostrum. It has all the necessary micro and macro elements to enhance low immunity. Moreover, colostrum removes the original feces and mucus from the intestines of the kids.
Milk is given immediately after milking, while it is warm every 4 hours. It is clear that it will not always be fresh, will have to be heated.
On the third day, the kids of the Megrelian breed are fed with porridge. Water should be constantly. And the kids hay begin to eat from ten days of age. As for the feed, you need a special one.
Giving new feed to the kids needs to be gradually. It is given in small portions, gradually increasing to the norm. As soon as the kids of the Megrelian breed get used to, and this will be seen from their condition, a new product can be introduced. Milk cubs fed for two or three months. Wean, reducing the portion.Tip! Small females need to drink milk longer than goats, then a productive goat grows out of them.
When the kids of the Megrelian breed will be a month old, in the summertime they are driven out to pasture. Artificially fed kids do not fit the goat. If the Megrelian breed goats are fed correctly, they do not get sick, they grow quickly.
Instead of conclusion
High-dairy domestic animals of the Megrelian breed are mainly raised by residents of Megrelia, Svaneti, Armenia, Azerbaijan. When free grazing they require high pastures. They find the grass necessary for development there. Currently there are approximately 100,000 heads. There are no particular differences in the cultivation of goats of various breeds. The main thing is attention, love for animals and compliance with the rules.