Many buyers who carefully read all the information on the package with cucumber seeds, paid attention to the fact that not only early varieties, but ultra early, are becoming increasingly popular. The main question that worries gardeners, is why then need late varieties, because no one likes to wait long. In this question lies the secret of which we will talk.
According to the degree of ripening, all the seeds of cucumbers are divided into four categories:
- early (no more than 42 days of ripening);
- early maturity (maturation in 43-45 days);
- middle ripening (46-50 days);
- late varieties (over 50 days).
Sometimes a producer simply indicates a category without bothering to indicate the number of days of maturation. This description will help beginners to easily determine how many varieties of fruit are ripening.
Difference of early varieties from late
To understand what is the difference between some varieties of cucumbers from others, it is necessary to understand how this plant grows. After the first seedlings appear from a seed, the cucumber grows not only upwards but also downwards, that is, the root system is formed and well developed. The plant gives a huge amount of energy to this development.
During the flowering period, the situation changes. The growth of rhizome slows down, a new life cycle of cucumbers begins. As soon as the ovaries appear, all forces will go to their growth, but the increase in rhizomes will stop. Thus, early varieties can produce fruit, respectively:
- either in large quantities, but for a very short period;
- or in small quantities.
The reason is simple: plants of this type have too little power for development. Late varieties have more development time, and they can be successfully grown not only in the open field, but also in greenhouses.
In Russia, cucumber is considered a particularly beloved culture. Without them, it is impossible to imagine summer fresh salads and winter pickles. That is why the cultivation of cucumbers is very popular and is interested in a huge number of summer residents. Often this vegetable can be found on the windowsills and glazed balconies in the apartments, what can we say about greenhouses! Additional benefits of late varieties:
- disease resistance;
- the ability to tolerate lower temperatures;
- high vitality.
Conditions for growing late varieties
For the cultivation of cucumbers, regardless of whether they are early or late, you must comply with the general conditions. Cucumber - a special plant, it is quite capricious, unpretentious it can not be called. So, it is necessary:
- observe temperature conditions (over 12 degrees Celsius);
- the air must be sufficiently humid;
- Sun cucumbers require a lot.
Most importantly: they do not like the cold. If the soil is not warmed, the seeds may die. Late varieties, especially hybrids, are designed so that they easily tolerate small fluctuations in temperature.
Given the positive qualities of late-class cucumbers, you need to be able to plant them in greenhouses. First in the store seeds to choose the right. What to look for?
- It should be a hybrid, not a variety.
- Cucumbers should be self-pollinated, since insects fly reluctantly into the greenhouse, and in the fall they may not be at all.
Below we describe some of the popular late hybrids of cucumbers for planting in greenhouses.
Planting seeds in the greenhouse
On the eve of planting, you can carry out the hardening of seeds in a simple way. This will allow them to germinate in supposedly worse conditions than those described on the packaging. To do this, they are placed in wet gauze and stored on the door of the refrigerator for two or three days. The temperature should not be too low.
Then the seeds are kept in a solution enriched with microelements. They are sold in the same place as the seeds.
Pay attention to the landing pattern shown on the package. If planting of cucumbers is done in summer, it is better to foresee a reduction in daylight hours and place the bushes more widely.
Later varieties can be planted both at the end of spring and at the end of summer in the greenhouse. They do this both in special cups with a subsequent transplant, and immediately in the beds, although it does not seem convenient to everyone to form bushes in this way.
Cucumbers need to be constantly watered and fed. For these two processes, you need to know a few secrets. They are as follows:
- plants do not require special care while observing the temperature and the abundance of the sun (for example, in the southern regions);
- if the temperature drops, and autumn comes, watering can only be done with warm water;
- it is better to water the bushes at dawn, when the temperature inside the greenhouse drops, this should be done every few days;
- with the appearance of ovaries, watering is usually significantly increased (at least twice), but this is possible only in a warm greenhouse;
- control watering and temperature (if the temperature drops, watering is reduced, as this can destroy the plants);
- when the temperature drops, weekly supplementation with a solution of nettle and dandelion is shown (it can be replaced by the introduction of complex fertilizer).
This will save the plants and get a rich harvest. Autumn late cucumbers are very tasty. They can be used both in food raw, and at salting. Please note that the purpose of the cucumber is also often indicated on the packaging. Some varieties do not go to canning, about which the gardener may simply not know.
If it is cold enough in your region in September and the greenhouse is not heated, you can add mulch to the soil as a layer of humus (10 centimeters are enough). Remember that dew is dangerous for plants of late varieties of cucumbers and in the greenhouse. Cold drops, falling on the leaves and stems, provoke hypothermia and the development of diseases. It can lead, for example, to the development of fungal diseases in all varieties without exception. If the temperature is lowered, after watering, it is better to cover the cucumbers with non-woven material until the sun warms up the air.
In the case when brown spots began to form on the leaves, the plants are sprayed with an aqueous solution with a mixture of milk (natural milk in the amount of 50% of the volume of water).Important! If the greenhouse is glassy, less condensation forms in it than in the one covered by the film. This means that the plants will be sick in it less often.
In the case when you are only planning to grow some varieties of cucumbers in the greenhouse, keep this fact in mind during the construction phase.
Do not forget that today a huge number of different preparations for the care of cucumber seedlings are sold, which allows you to effectively deal with both pests and diseases. Late varieties of cucumbers can suffer from them only in adverse environmental conditions, more often - with abundant watering during the cold period.
A video with tips on planting late cucumber varieties will also be helpful.
Some late varieties
We describe the popular varieties of late cucumbers, which can be grown in a greenhouse. All of them belong to the type of hybrids and pollinate independently without the participation of insects.
The length of green
up to 11 centimeters
15 kilograms per 1 m2
in 60-65 days
average 8-9 centimeters
up to 485 centners per hectare
after 55 days
up to 18 centimeters
28 kilograms per 1 m2
after 58-61 days
12 kilograms per 1 m2
after 47 days
about 24 kilograms per 1 m2
after 70-76 days
up to 18 centimeters
no more than 22 kilogram from 1 m2
in 70-74 days
on average 20-21 centimeters
not more than 14 kilograms per 1 m2
in 60-65 days
Due to the fact that early varieties are gaining immense popularity, later ones lose their positions. They are getting smaller in the market. Some of them are intended for planting in open ground. Of course, pollination in the conditions of the greenhouse of the bee-pollinating variety is also possible, but this process is complex and few people will enjoy spending their time on this tedious task.
When planting cucumbers in heated greenhouses, the problem of cold weather is eliminated, but in this case it is important not to destroy the plants by dry air. This is the most common problem of such greenhouses. Cucumber - the plant is quite capricious, regardless of the variety, not everyone can grow a rich harvest in the first season, but experience is important for any business, but it does not come right away.