Probably, there is no such person who would not like cucumbers. Salted, pickled and fresh - these vegetables are the first to appear on the tables after a long winter and leave them among them. It is the cucumbers that most often preserve hostesses, creating stocks of provisions for the winter. They are a constant component of salads and an appetizing independent dish.
Experienced gardeners and gardeners know all the rules of growing cucumbers, but what should those who first want to plant their seeds do? All the rules and intricacies of growing cucumbers will be discussed in this article.
Ways to grow cucumbers
Methods of planting cucumbers are divided into only two types:
The choice of method depends on several factors, the main of which is the climatic features of the region.
Cucumbers can be planted in both open and closed ground. For the second method, there are a variety of greenhouses, greenhouses and films. Planting cucumbers in the ground does not require any complex preparation, but the first cucumbers in the open area will appear later than in the greenhouse.
Another factor is the yield. Long-timed gardeners assure that to get high yields of cucumber in a greenhouse is more real than on open ground. Indeed, in a greenhouse it is easier to control the temperature and humidity, it is not dangerous for cucumbers to be cold and freeze, which adversely affect the thermophilic plant.
However, for their own needs of the family will be quite enough cucumbers grown in the garden. With proper care, fresh vegetables will delight the owners from the beginning of the summer until the middle of autumn.
For planting cucumbers choose a sunny and sheltered from the wind plot. If natural protection from the wind is not enough, you can plant corn on the edges of the plot.
Prepare the soil for planting cucumbers need more in the fall. To do this, choose the area on which were planted onions or garlic - this is the best predecessors for the cucumber. In extreme cases, you can plant cucumbers in one place, but not more than five years.
It is also necessary to avoid other representatives of pumpkin: zucchini, squash.
In autumn, the ground in the cucumber dug area is 25-27 cm deep and fertilized abundantly: you need about a bucket of chicken manure or mullein per square meter.
In the spring, the ground should be thoroughly moistened; if there is not enough rain, you will have to water it with a hose. Remove the roots of weeds and disinfect the soil with a weak solution of manganese.
Now you can do trench for cucumbers. Climbing cucumber varieties are planted in the trenches, which are subsequently tied up on a trellis. The depth of the trench should be about 25 cm, if the cucumber will be planted in the form of seedlings. The seeds are buried shallowly - 2-3 cm, so the trenches in this case should be shallow.
Tip! Experienced gardeners recommend making trenches for cucumbers up to 40 cm deep. Almost completely fill them with organic fertilizer, foliage or even food waste, and then cover it with a thin layer of earth. Such preparation will ensure a constant process of decay, as a result of which the cucumbers will need so much heat.
The distance between cucumbers should be about 30 cm, and between adjacent trenches - 70-100 cm. The main thing is that the whips do not shade the neighboring bushes. For greenhouses, it is better to choose cucumber varieties with high shoots without strong branching, suitable for vertical cultivation, because there is not enough air circulation there - the stems on the ground can rot and ache.
The horizontal method of planting involves the use of cucumbers, which spread along the ground and grow either by bushes or have highly developed lateral whips. Such cucumbers are also planted either with seeds or seedlings, 4-6 holes are made on one square meter, observing an approximate distance between plants of 50 cm.
Regardless of the method of planting cucumbers in the ground (seedlings or seeds), seeds are prepared equally.Important! Of course, this stage does not apply to purchased seeds of cucumbers - they have already been hardened and decontaminated, as well as the rejection of unsuitable seeds.
Careful preparation requires seeds collected from the previous crop of cucumbers. So, you need to follow the following points and rules:
- You need to plant seeds that are at least two years old. Seed material collected last year does not fit, it will not give a good harvest.
- First of all, the cucumber seeds need to warm up well. To do this, they poured into a canvas bag and hung around the battery or other heat source. In this position, leave the bag for 2-3 days, the temperature in the room should be more than 20 degrees.
- Now the seeds need to be rejected. Salt is added to a container with water (at the rate of 25 grams of salt per liter of water), the seeds are poured in and mixed. Seeds of cucumber, which will settle on the bottom, need to be collected, and the surfaced ones can be thrown away - they are empty, nothing will grow out of them.
- Decontamination will help protect the seeds from diseases, most often, using manganese for this. In a strong solution of potassium permanganate, cucumber seeds are placed for no longer than 20 minutes. Then they must be removed and rinsed thoroughly with warm water.
- Nutrient seeds of cucumber will fill the usual wood ash. It is added to warm water in the proportion of 1 tablespoon per liter of water and stirred. Seeds leave to be fed with useful substances, it will take 1-2 days.
- Washed and dried cucumber seeds are wrapped in clean gauze and put on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for 1 day. Such hardening will help the cucumbers to withstand temperature drops and possible cooling.
- Seeds are placed on a gauze moistened with water, covered with a film or a lid and left in a warm place for 2-3 days. The temperature in the room should be 25-28 degrees (you can put the seeds on the battery).
- Hacked cucumber seeds are ready for planting in the ground.
Tip! Some gardeners are waiting for a sprout to emerge from a seed, so cucumbers will grow faster. But these sprouts are very tender, they are easy to damage when planted, so it is better to plant slightly crooked or swollen cucumber seeds.
How to grow seedlings
Cucumber seedlings are grown mainly in open ground. In the greenhouse, you can control the temperature of the soil, where the seeds germinate quickly. But the temperature of the earth in open areas often does not meet the requirements of the heat-loving cucumber, because this plant can be planted in the ground, warmed up to at least 15 degrees.
Cucumbers have very tender stems and roots, therefore sowing seeds for seedlings should be used in disposable or peat cups. The first ones are subsequently cut to remove cucumbers painlessly, and the peat is dissolved in the ground, so the seedlings can be planted directly in such a container.Important! Land for cucumber seedlings is prepared in the autumn. To do this, mix sawdust, fertilizer and soil, and leave the mixture in a cool place (for example, in the basement). It takes time for fertilizer to burn out.
The earth is poured into cups, filling them two thirds. Then the soil is watered with a pre-heated weak manganese solution. After 30 minutes, you can plant cucumber seeds. 1-2 cups of seeds are placed in each cup and placed horizontally. Top sprinkled with sifted earth 1.5-2 cm and sprinkled with water.
To sprout cucumber sprouts, you need a warm and sunny place with a temperature of at least 20 degrees. It is better to cover the cups with a film or transparent lids so that the moisture does not evaporate and the temperature is more uniform.
On the third day, cucumber sprouts will appear, now you can open the cups and put them on the windowsill. The main thing is that cucumbers should be warm and light, drafts and open windows are very dangerous for them.
Seven days before landing in the ground, seedlings can be hardened. To do this, take out the cucumbers on the street or open a window, the procedure should last about two hours.Tip! If sunlight is not enough seedlings, you can add lighting fluorescent fluorescent lights.
Transplanting seedlings to ground
Cucumbers are ready for transplanting into the soil about 30 days after planting the seeds in the pots. By this time, cucumbers should reach a height of 30 cm and have one or two true leaves, elastic and green.
Terms of planting seedlings in the ground depend on the climatic characteristics of the region, as long as there is no threat of frost.
Cucumber seedlings are planted using the method of transshipment with the soil, or they are simply buried in peat cups (the edges of the glass should be flush with the trench or hole).
Why plant seed cucumbers
Cucumber, unlike tomatoes, is most often planted with seeds. The fact is that cucumber seedlings are very delicate, with delicate roots and stems. Not only is it easily damaged, the seedlings very poorly tolerate acclimatization to new conditions (temperature, sun, wind, other soil composition).
Only very experienced farmers who know all the secrets and subtleties of this business can get a good harvest from cucumber seedlings.
For ordinary summer residents and gardeners, the method of planting seeds in the ground is more appropriate. In this case, the first vegetables will appear only a week later, but cucumbers will be strong and resistant to external factors.
Seeds are prepared in the same way as for seedlings, and purchased cucumber seeds can be planted directly from the bag. Each well is plentifully watered with manganese solution and the seeds are placed there. Cucumber roots grow shallowly, they are superficial, so the seeds do not need to bury too much. They are powdered with a layer of soil in 2-3 cm and do not tamp it. Above a little watered with warm water.
If nighttime temperatures are still too low, you can cover the area with a film, which is removed after the appearance of these sheets.Attention! For bee pollinated cucumber varieties there is one important nuance - pollinating plants with male flowers are planted 6 days earlier than the main seeds. This interval is necessary for the simultaneous appearance of male and female inflorescences and their fuller pollination.
The process of planting cucumber seeds in the soil is quite simple:
- Prepare holes or trenches.
- Pour organic fertilizer in them and mix with soil.
- Dust this layer with earth and put one or two seeds there.
- Close the seeds 2-3 cm of soil.
That's the whole process.
Planting cucumbers is absolutely not a difficult task that anyone can handle. Growing seedlings, of course, is more laborious than sowing seeds in the soil, but both of these processes are quite feasible. It is much more difficult to care for adult plants, cucumbers constantly require watering, feeding, weeding, puffing the soil and harvesting.