Cucumber is the first fresh vegetable after a long winter. Previously, the rest he appears on the shelves of markets and shops, and the first begins to bear fruit in the cottages and gardens. Of course, I want to get mature fruits as soon as possible, so breeders are working to develop early cucumber varieties. The earliest vegetables are saturated with the same nutrients and microelements as other varieties, and these cucumbers start to bear fruit one to two weeks earlier than others.
How to grow cucumbers before anyone else
Especially for lovers to enjoy fresh vegetables from their own garden breeders and brought early ripening varieties of cucumbers. In general, all cucumbers according to the speed of ripening are divided into several types:
- superearly - bear the first fruits already at 33-40 days after planting;
- early ripening varieties have a growing season of no more than 45 days;
- mid-ripening - will ripen at 45-50 days;
- Late-ripened cucumbers will appear on the bushes only by the 55th day after the seeds are planted in the ground.
So, in order to quickly remove the first crop from the bushes, it is necessary to choose the seeds of super early and early ripening cucumber varieties.Important! The earlier the cucumbers are planted, the faster their "life" will end. The first greenhouses lead to wilting of the root system, the bush will not be able to bear fruit for a long time.
What rules need to be followed
The owner must understand that each type of cucumber has its own purpose. So, superearly varieties and hybrids are most often grown in greenhouses. As a result of selection, the seeds of such plants, of course, receive the necessary hardening, helping them to cope with day and night temperatures, spring frosts and other troubles. And yet, even the most hardened superearly cucumbers can not withstand the climatic features of the northern and central regions of Russia.
Therefore, when buying seeds, the situation should be assessed as a whole: answer the following questions:
- What are these cucumbers for (for salad, in order to saturate the first need for vitamins, for preservation)?
- Is it possible to cover the bushes from frost (greenhouse, temporary greenhouses, just covering film)?
- What is the average temperature in this region at a certain time of the year (do frosts occur, does air temperature vary much by day and night)?
If you need a variety in order to get a few kilograms of early cucumbers (until the average grows) and use them fresh, then superearly varieties and hybrids will be very useful. Especially if it is possible to shelter them from the cold, and the site is located on the south side in a warm region.
Early varieties can be used for preservation and marinades, but this is impractical. It is better to use mid-season and late-ripened cucumbers for these purposes.
Features early cucumbers
Early cucumbers are breeding varieties and hybrids, on which scientists have worked. The seeds of these cucumbers, like the plants themselves, have a number of features:
- seeds undergo severe hardening at low temperatures;
- they are more resistant to diseases;
- early varieties are less demanding of the sun and heat - for normal growth they need only partial shade and no frost;
- most of the early varieties are parthenocarpic and self-pollinated species, but there are also bee-pollinated cucumbers for planting in open ground;
- it is more effective to plant early cucumbers in greenhouses (they do it in late February or early March);
- in the ground such cucumbers are planted depending on the climate - more often, in the third decade of May;
- early varieties are never bitter (breeders simultaneously with the hardening process removed bitterness from cucumbers);
- almost all early ripe cucumbers are best consumed fresh (they are juicy, with a thin skin and tender flesh).
Variety or hybrid
Having decided on the terms of ripening and characteristics of early ripe cucumbers, the gardener faces another problem - which cucumbers are better than varietal or hybrid.
There is no unequivocal answer to this question, and both types are distinguished by high yield, resistance to diseases and high humidity. So what is the difference, and which cucumbers are better?
Varieties are varieties of the same species bred by breeders. The main condition for such a selection is the transfer of the "descendant" of all the qualities and characteristics of the "ancestors". We can say that this is natural reproduction with some adjustments made by scientists. Varietal cucumbers can be modified independently, transferring pollen from one type of plant to another. Only from these, varietal, cucumbers, you can collect seeds for subsequent cultivation - they fully preserve the characteristics of the previous plant.Important! Bee pollinated varieties of early cucumbers give a lot of male flowers on the main shoot. So that they do not reduce productivity and do not weaken the bush, they tear off the flowers, and pinch the shoot.
Hybrid seeds can be easily distinguished by marking "F1" next to the name of the variety. This code means that female flowers dominate in cucumber, and inside the package there are seeds of the first generation hybrid (figure 1). Hybrids are obtained by repeated crossing of several types of cucumbers. This process is quite long - from three to ten years. Every year, the obtained seeds are crossed again, achieving the optimal qualities of a cucumber. The best characteristics of a grade are left, getting rid of shortcomings and weaknesses.Important! Hybrids are more resistant to temperature factors and major diseases of cucumbers.
Purchase of seeds of early ripe cucumbers
Having defined all the nuances, you can proceed to the selection of suitable varieties and hybrids. The difference between superearly and early ripe cucumbers is a few days in ripening. This limit is very conditional, the exact time frame can only be talked about in the greenhouse cultivation of cucumbers at a stable temperature, light and humidity.
Therefore, below is a joint list of the best early and super early cucumbers.