In order to obtain consistently high yields, it is necessary to figure out who eats cucumber seedlings in the greenhouse. Pests are one of the main reasons for the decline in yield in greenhouses.
The most famous pests in greenhouses
(Southern, Javanese, peanut and northern) - harmful phytophages, belong to a large group of roundworms. The southern gall nematode is more common.
The female is easily recognizable by the pear-shaped body of a milky white color, 0.5-1.9 mm long. The imagoes are located in the enlarged tissues of the injured root - in the galls. Hibernate in the phase of eggs or larvae. Penetration into the roots occurs during the planting of seedlings. Digestive pest enzymes provoke chaotic division of root cells. Nematodes develop in the resulting galls. Gauls create obstacles to the supply of water and nutrients to the vegetative organs of plants. The leaves turn yellow and fall off.
Meloydoginosis - so called diseases caused by nematodes. As a result of the destructive activity of worms, the plant is depleted, the harvest is sharply reduced, and a premature death of the crop may occur. Diseases penetrating through the damaged root (rot, fusarium wilt) develop due to nematode infection. Positive results are the cultivation of hybrids that are resistant to damage.
Pests of cucumbers in the greenhouse - mites - represent an extensive group of phytophages.
Common spider miter
It reproduces mainly on cucumbers. Settled on all vegetative organs of culture: leaves, stems, fruits, weaving them with cobwebs. Eating vegetable juice from cells causes irreversible changes in metabolism. Inhibition of plants leads to a significant decrease in yield. White spots on the leaves, single at first, over time form a solid marble pattern. Subsequently, the leaves dry out.
Rarely damage the stems and roots, feeding mainly on the leaves.
The viruses of tobacco and cucumber mosaic spread by aphids. On its secretions saprophytic fungi settle. Cucumbers are lagging behind in growth and development, product quality is deteriorating. Photosynthesis is inhibited. With an ideal microclimate in a greenhouse - a temperature of + 22 ... + 25 ° C, a relative humidity of 80% - the population size increases dramatically: 20 generations grow in a season. In utility greenhouses, pests are sprayed with Aktellik or Fosbecid, Intrafir, TAB.
In greenhouses use natural enemies - predators, including:
- gallitsa aphidymia;
- parasitic lysiflebus riders;
- Cuban ladybug cyclone.
Greenhouse or greenhouse whitefly
On cucumbers, reproduction rates, fertility and survival rates are higher than on other crops. It infects the leaves with honey dew, because of which shine appears on them, and then black, or black fungus. Adult individual in size from 0.9 to 1.1 mm, yellowish in color. It has 2 pairs of wings, shrouded in white powdery pollen. The larvae and nymphs have a flat, rounded, undifferentiated body covered with spines. Wintering females are able to tolerate temperatures up to - 12 ° C. For the season formed 10-15 generations. Protective measures:
- prevention - the destruction of weeds-reserve;
- disinfection of packaging and seedlings;
- use of Verticillin, Aktellik or Phosbecid, Inta-Vira, TAB in utility greenhouses.
Western floral, or California trips
It has a quarantine value. Imago with a narrow body 1.3-1.4 mm long. Color from light yellow to dark brown. On the anterior and posterior margins of the pronotum 5 pairs of setae grow. It has fringed wings. Imago overwinter on organic soil residues or in the crevices of greenhouse structures. Appears after planting seedlings. Lays eggs in the leaves and tops of the stem. Females eat vegetable juice for a month. During this time, may lay up to 300 eggs.
The vital activity of thrips causes the appearance of yellow necrotic spots and a significant weakening of the plants. Torn holes appear on the sheet. The tops of the stems twist. On flowers tied deformed fruit. Sterilization of soil, disinfection of containers and tools, destruction of weeds give a positive result.
Harms cucumbers in the spring. It is a fly with a black back, transparent wings, a yellow carapace and light halters. Body length - 1.5-2.3 mm. Lozhokokony winter in the surface of the soil. Flies out at the time of planting seedlings. After mating, females lay eggs in leaf tissue. Then the emerged larvae gnaw through the moves, damaging the surface. In the greenhouse can develop up to 5-7 generations. The function of photosynthesis is inhibited, the leaves turn yellow and fall off. Prevention - removal of weeds, disinfection of the soil. Apply Aktellik or Phosbecid, TAB, EC.
3-5 mm long, gray in color, with large faceted eyes. It has one pair of webbed wings. The larva is white, legless, and worm-shaped. It penetrates into the greenhouse with humus. The imago is settled on cucumber seedlings. Egg-laying occurs in the soil. The larvae gnaw through the passages at the base of the stems of the seedlings and in the roots. The result of feeding the larvae is rotting and tilting of the lower part of the stem. The turgor is broken, and the plant dies.
Protecting indoor plants
The fight against phytophagia begins with the purpose of prevention:
- Before planting, the greenhouse (its main structures) is disinfected by flame treatment;
- carry out heat treatment of the soil;
- eliminate old plant residues;
- wash glass and greenhouse designs with disinfectant solutions;
- produce whitewashing the base of the greenhouse.
The complex of preventive measures leads to the death of the main number of phytophages.