Cultivation of cucumbers in the Urals in the greenhouse is complicated by the limited favorable period of vegetation of plants. Frosts sometimes persist until 1-2 decade of June. They can start again at the end of August. To obtain an earlier crop of cucumbers in the Ural climate, many summer residents grow crops not through sowing of seeds, but through planting of seedlings. Those years that are favorable for obtaining a good crop of cucumbers in the Urals are about 3 times in 10 years.
What varieties of cucumbers are suitable for growing in the Urals
The climate of the Urals has its own characteristics that complicate the process of growing crops. Among the different varieties of cucumber seeds, you can choose the most suitable for cultivation in the Urals. To be limited to one grade is not worth it, so it is best to opt for 4-5 varieties. For example, ideal for salads and pickles is the Nezhene variety of cucumbers, which can be harvested until the autumn. You can choose early and mid-ripening varieties of cucumbers. Ideal for growing in the Urals are the following types of hybrid varieties:
- Voyage - a ripening variety of cucumbers, ripening for 45 days in a greenhouse, does not require pollination, normally tolerates temperature drops.
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- Arina is a cold-resistant hybrid of cucumbers, which is high-yielding and resistant to various plant diseases.
img "alt =" Arina "src =" / wp-content / uploads / userfiles / Arina-f1.jpg ">
- Amur is an early ripe variety, which tolerates high and low temperatures, which is planted by seeds or seedlings in open ground, full ripening of fruits can be expected in 40-45 days.
img "alt =" Amur "src =" / wp-content / uploads / userfiles / Amur-F1.jpg ">
- Moscow evenings - early variety, suitable for growing in a greenhouse or in the open field, grows well in the shade, resistant to such types of diseases as powdery mildew, olive spotting, etc.
img "alt =" Moscow evenings "src =" / wp-content / uploads / userfiles / Podmoskovnie-vechera-F1.jpg ">
The varieties Voyage and Arina are suitable only for fresh consumption, and hybrids near Moscow evenings and Amur will fit for salting. It is not difficult to make the right choice among the variety of cucumber varieties for growing in the harsh Ural climate, so the result must meet all expectations. To achieve this result, it will be necessary to ensure the proper care of cucumbers.
Sowing seeds in the conditions of the Middle Urals
Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse using seedlings leads to faster harvest. Planting cucumbers with seeds is necessary in time, depending on the type of culture shelter used. It should be ideal for the care of plants in the conditions of the Middle Urals. Growing cucumber seedlings can be done in special bags or pots.
This type of culture does not tolerate a pick, and damage to the roots of seedlings can lead to a lag of the adult plant for 10-15 days.
The development of cucumbers, which are planted in open ground seedlings, occurs quite quickly, 20-25 days earlier. Seeds for seedlings first heated, filled with hot water. They must be kept in a thermos for two hours and then etched by placing in a dark solution of potassium permanganate for half an hour.
After the procedures, the cucumber seeds will need to be soaked in warm water, the temperature of which should not be above 40 ° C. Wait until the seeds are ready for 10-12 hours. Soak the seeds until they swell to accelerate the emergence of shoots. This method of preplant seed preparation is the easiest and most affordable. Water should be poured in 2 doses, which will ensure the best absorption of fluid into the seeds, it changes every 4 hours. You can use the plate for laying out the seeds. For soaking, a small gauze bag is suitable, which should be dipped in a container with water.
Effective and proven method of soaking the seeds by preparing infusion of wood ash. Taking it in the amount of 2 tbsp. l., pour microfertilizer into a 1 liter container. Then warm water is poured into it and the contents are drawn for two days. The solution should be stirred periodically. After this, the infusion should be carefully drained and immersed in it the seeds laid in a gauze bag, for 4-5 hours.
Sprouting cucumber seeds
Before sowing cucumbers, the soaked seeds are germinated, laying out on a damp cloth with a thin layer. The temperature in the room should be 15-25 ° C. Top layer of seeds must be covered with a damp cloth. With this approach, the emergence of seedlings can be accelerated by 5-7 days. The term germination of cucumber seeds is 1-3 days.
Keeping the humidity at an optimum level, make sure that the water does not evaporate. To do this, a cloth with seeds can be placed in a plastic bag or covered with glass. So that it is not too wet, the amount of water must be appropriate. With an excess of moisture, the process of oxygen supply, which is necessary for the normal germination of cucumber seeds, becomes difficult. Air can only be reached by regularly turning the seeds on the fabric.
Germination is necessary to finish when most of the seeds already have white sprouts. When they have already appeared, at the same time with them the development of the root of the plant begins. Therefore, it is important not to miss the moment of spitting cucumbers from seeds. If the brittle root that appears when sown turns out to be damaged, then it will be impossible to obtain a plant from it.
Planting seeds should be in moist, warm and cultivated soil. If you had to delay the sowing of seeds, then after germination they should be stored in a refrigerator at a temperature of 3-4 ° C.
Growing cucumber seedlings
For normal growth of cucumber seedlings, all containers with future cucumbers should be placed on the window sill from the sunny side, and if necessary, add an additional source of lighting. By setting the optimum temperature, you can get the first true leaf from seedlings 5 to 6 days after planting. The appearance of the second leaflet can be expected 8-10 days after the first. To ensure the rapid growth of seedlings is possible only by proper care of the soil, as the plants will receive full development only in conditions of normal soil permeability.
Before planting seedlings in the ground, it should be fed 2 times with complex fertilizer of the UKT-1 brand. The first feeding is carried out in the phase of the first sheet at the rate of 1 cup of solution for 4-5 plants. The second should be carried out 3-4 days before planting in the ground with the same composition at the rate of 1 cup for 2-3 plants. If you do not water the seedlings before feeding, then after using the fertilizer solution, the roots of cucumbers may burn.
By feeding plants, it is necessary to monitor their condition. Each dressing of seedlings should be finished by watering cucumbers with warm water and potassium permanganate. This allows fertilizer to be washed off the leaves, preventing the appearance of a black leg. Feeding seedlings with milky water, which includes milk and water — 200 g and 1 l, respectively, is quite effective. The mixture is consumed at the rate of 1 cup for 5 plants in the phase of the first leaf, and for 3 plants in the phase of the second.
Planting seedlings in the ground
In the Urals, cucumbers are planted in the soil in the form of seedlings in film greenhouses on May 20 without using biofuels.
Planting plants in the soil without biofuels in a greenhouse made of glass is May 5th. Growing cucumbers in the form of seedlings in a glass greenhouse in the Urals usually starts from April 25, if there is manure in the soil. Film greenhouse with biofuel in the form of manure, better horse, suitable for planting cucumber seedlings in the Urals from 1 May.
Having decided when to plant cucumbers in a greenhouse, it is necessary to properly prepare the seedlings for planting in open ground. Plants at the age of 30 days should have about 4-5 leaves. If you start planting plants in the soil that were not prepared for sunlight, they can immediately die. Two weeks before the landing, it is necessary to start carrying out boxes of cucumbers in the sun. At first, you should choose warm, windless days. You can not keep the seedlings on the street for a long time, and in the future, the procedure time can be gradually increased.
To install the boxes with cucumber seedlings should choose a shaded area, which is protected from drafts. Before planting, it is necessary to prevent the infection of seedlings on the basis of processing cucumbers with Epin or Immunocytophyte preparations solutions. Before planting, the plants should be squat with wide, dark green leaves. The root system of future cucumbers should be strong.
A warning! Cucumbers in a greenhouse can not be planted after squash, pumpkin, melon or squash, as cucumber seedlings are too susceptible to various types of diseases.
You can plant cucumbers in the ground, where tomatoes, eggplants, onions, or cabbage were grown last year. Since these types of crops have other diseases, the cucumber planting after them will be carried out with minimal risk.
The bed should not be made wider than 1.3 m, as it will have to plant cucumbers in 3 rows, which will make it difficult to care for the plants in the middle row. Planting cucumbers in a draft should not be. The bed should be well prepared and dug up, since light and loose formulations are preferred for cucumbers rather than heavy and dense soil.