Many are familiar with agricultural technology of growing cucumbers in a greenhouse today, because quite a few people are engaged in cultivating this crop in greenhouse conditions. The main reason why this method is so popular is that the greenhouse allows you to increase the fruiting period of this crop. Therefore, the summer resident can provide himself with fresh cucumbers not only in summer, but also in autumn. And if you choose the right choice of varieties, then this occupation can become an additional source of income.
Preparing the soil for growing cucumbers
From many factors and the soil largely depends on what will be the yield of cucumbers. If you have already managed to get a greenhouse, you can prepare the soil. Here you can offer a lot of options, but note that in the end you should have a fertile land. In order not to fuss in the spring, it is advisable to start preparing the soil in the fall, after harvesting the next crop. For the cultivation of cucumbers requires sowing under the winter of green manure: wheat or rye. After waiting for the moment when winter crops become strong, they are dug up and additionally add 4 kg of superphosphate and 3 kg of wood ash per 10 m² to the ground. At this autumn soil preparation is considered complete.
It is also useful before planting to disinfect the soil: to do this, a mixture of potassium permanganate and lime is prepared in accordance with the following proportions: for 15 liters of water it is necessary to take 6 g of manganese and for 6 liters of water 20 g of lime.
The most labor-intensive part of soil preparation is planned for spring: it is necessary to dig a trench to a depth of 25 cm at a selected place. A compost or a humus layer of 15 cm and some greenhouse soil are laid at the bottom.
Rules for planting cucumber seeds for seedlings
No less important stage of growing cucumbers in the greenhouse is sowing seeds. Peat pots, which must be pre-filled with nutritious soil, are best suited for this. You can also use peat tablets or plastic cups available for each. If you have time, you can make paper cups. In general, the last word should be for the gardener.
But if you decide to use plastic containers for growing seedlings, then before filling with soil, you need to make drainage holes in them. Two seeds are sown in each cup to a depth of no more than 1.5 cm.
It is also necessary to resolve the issue of nutrient soil for sowing cucumber seeds. It can be purchased in specialized stores for the gardener or cook yourself. If you chose the latter, you can use one of the following options for soil mixture, which can be prepared at home:
- Take equal amounts of peat, sawdust and sod land. Add 1 cup of wood ash to the bucket.
- Mixture for sowing seeds can be prepared from peat and humus, taken in the same proportions. On a bucket of the mixture put 1 cup of wood ash.
- You can prepare a mixture of 2 parts of peat, the same amount of humus and 1 part of small sawdust. In addition to the bucket mixture, add 3 tbsp. l wood ash and 1 tbsp. l nitrofoski.
To increase the fertility of the planting soil, a solution of sodium humate will be required. For its preparation it is necessary to take 1 tbsp. l drug and dilute in a bucket of water. It is necessary to warm the prepared solution to a temperature of +50 ° C and pour the soil mixture with it, which will be used for sowing seeds. Often, after watering the land begins to subside. In this case, you have to fill the ground to fill the full volume of cups. When the seeds are in the planting container, they need to cover with plastic wrap that will help create an optimal microclimate for germination.
To accelerate seed germination, it is necessary to maintain the temperature at + 22 ... +28 ° С. With the appearance of cucumber sprouts, the temperature must be lowered: in the daytime, it should not be above + 15 ... +16 ° С, and at night - + 12 ... +14 ° С. The process of growing seedlings takes little time and is a maximum of 25 days. It is very important that the fluctuations between day and night temperatures are significant - this will help speed up the formation of the root system of plants.
How to grow cucumbers in greenhouse conditions
Having completed the work on sowing seeds, it is necessary to wait for their germination. After this covering material due to useless clean. From this point on, the temperature is lowered to the mark of +20 ° C. This will avoid pulling seedlings.
Another 7 days after sowing, begin a dive. Simultaneously with this operation it is necessary to carry out thinning with the removal of weak entrances. Until it is time to transplant cucumber seedlings into the greenhouse, it is watered several times and the soil is poured into pots if necessary. According to the rules of cultivation of cucumbers, in the period of seedling formation it is necessary to apply additional fertilizers, regardless of the fertility level of the soil used for sowing seeds.
Until favorable weather is established for transplanting seedlings into the greenhouse, the plants must be fed several times. The first time fertilizers are applied when the first true leaf appears. Experts recommend the use of organic or mineral fertilizers in liquid form. For a better assimilation by plants, fertilizers are combined with irrigation, and this procedure is preferably carried out in the morning. After 2-3 weeks begin to conduct a second feeding. Usually it is timed to form the seedlings of the second true leaf. The third time, fertilizers are applied immediately before transplanting seedlings in the greenhouse, a few days before the planned date.
How to apply fertilizer for seedlings
To grow a good crop in greenhouses without dressings is very difficult, and sometimes almost impossible. Therefore, they need to be carried out not only at the stage of cultivation in the greenhouse, but also during the formation of seedlings. Above it was said that fertilizer is applied under the seedlings 3 times. For the first time use a mixture of mineral and organic fertilizers:
- Superphosphate (20 g).
- Manure solution. For its preparation it is necessary to dilute 1 bucket of useful liquid in the same amount of water.
You can use bird droppings instead of slurry. However, in this case, you need to change the proportions, 1:10. However, you can save time and buy ready-made fertilizer, for example, potassium humate, sodium humate or similar, in a store for a summer resident. When the time comes for the next feeding, the dose of fertilizer should be increased. The second time, the seedlings can be fed with nitrophosphate: you need to bring it in the form diluted in a bucket of water during irrigation. During the first and second dressings, the following fertilizer flow pattern should be followed: 2 liters per 1 m² of planting.
When it is time to apply fertilizer for the third time, you can prepare the following feeding:
- superphosphate (40 g);
- urea (15 g);
- potassium salt (10 g);
- a bucket of water (10 l).
The top dressing prepared according to the above recipe is brought in according to the scheme: 5 liters per 1 m² of planting. Each time it is necessary to complete the dressing with ordinary clean water. You need to do this very carefully and make sure that fertilizers do not fall on the leaves of the seedlings. But if this happened anyway, immediately rinse the solution with warm water.
Planting cucumber seedlings in the greenhouse
Growing cucumber seedlings for a greenhouse takes no more than 25 days, you can learn about this by forming 3-5 true leaves in plants. Cucumber is planted in rows, which must be located at a distance of 0.5 m from each other. Tapes are placed with a step of about 80 cm, the disembarkation step should be 25 cm.
Before placing the plant in the hole on the bottom you need to put a handful of organic or mineral fertilizer. After that, moisten the hole and transfer the peat pot to it. From above it is covered with soil and tamped. If you used other containers for growing seedlings, for example, plastic cups, then you need to carefully remove the plant along with the ground and move it to the hole. Complete the transplant with a thorough watering and mulching of the top layer of soil.
Cucumber growing technology
After transplantation of seedlings, the summer resident needs to exert maximum efforts to create favorable conditions for the plants to take root and enter into growth. It is necessary to take into account that at each stage of development it is necessary to maintain a certain temperature.
Keep in mind that this culture does not tolerate sudden temperature fluctuations during the day.
In the first days after transplantation, the temperature must be maintained at + 20 ... +22 ° С. When the seedlings take root, the temperature can be lowered to +19 ° С. If the temperature is initially lowered, this will seriously slow down the growth of the seedlings. If, on the contrary, all the time to maintain a high temperature, the plants will spend most of the forces on the formation of foliage, which will adversely affect the yield.