Despite the intensive growth of lashes, blackberry bushes have an attractive decorative effect. However, besides beauty, it is also necessary to harvest. Superfluous shoots thicken the bush. The plant becomes weak, it hibernates poorly, it brings few berries, the taste of the fruit is noticeably reduced. The problem can be solved only by the correct formation of a bush, and without trimming is not enough.
Do I need to cut the blackberry
By its natural origin, blackberry is a biennial plant. The first year the bush grows. This period is important for the formation of fruit buds. In the second year the plant throws flower stalks in the spring and bears fruit. For the third year only foliage will grow on old branches. There is no sense to these shoots, and they are subject only to pruning. The next spring will be bearing fruit. If old shoots are not removed, they will accumulate so much that the blackberry will weave into a huge green lump. Harvest such a bush will no longer bring.
In addition to the old shoots, still need pruning young basal shoots. It grows too much, which also creates a thickened bush.
When to do pruning blackberries in spring
Blackberries, like most other plants, are pruned in the fall, when fruiting is over and the culture goes into a stage of calm. Terms depend on the climatic conditions of the region. Usually pruning falls in October - November.
In the spring, a sanitary procedure. Remove frozen and damaged shoots and shorten long branches of blackberry to increase yield. The best time is considered a short period immediately after the snow melts. It is advisable to choose a moment when the kidneys have not yet swelled, and the threat of night frosts has passed.Attention! Blackberry bush is the least traumatized if you cut the whip in early spring, before the kidneys wake up.
How to properly trim the blackberry
Blackberry bush consists of thin twigs. For trimming tools, you only need a sharp pruner. To make the procedure for a blackberry bush painless, follow simple rules:
- for cutting use only clean, sharply ground shears;
- thick lashes cut with a garden saw;
- adhere to the timing of pruning in the spring;
- follow the rules of the formation of the bush.
After wintering the plant carefully inspect. If the autumn pruning was not made, then in the spring immediately remove all the old shoots at the very root.Attention! Hemp after trimming can not be left. Pests are infiltrating inside the old wood.
After pruning old branches inspect young overwintered shoots. On rods can be observed damaged by rodents or just frostbitten in winter areas. A bad shoot is determined by black color, roughness of the bark, fragility. In identifying such twigs completely cut out without leaving hemp.
Investigate in the spring you need even healthy lashes for viability. The foulness of such a stalk may occur due to freezing or the appearance of buds. This escape of blackberry is not cut at the root. Here it is allowed to leave a stump if there are 1-2 live buds. From them in the summer will grow new shoots.
We offer to watch the video for beginners on how to cut the blackberry in the spring:
In the spring, when trimming blackberries, all thin and weak stems are removed, even if they are well wintered. Experienced gardeners recommend pruning all shoots in doubt. Sorry thin lash is not worth it. Fewer healthy branches will yield more yield than a bunch of thin, weak growth.
A bush with 6-8 last year's healthy stems is considered to be full after wintering and spring pruning. If the plant in the spring is only four normal escape, the bush is considered weakened. By fruiting it is not allowed, and shortened. The bush will recover over the summer, grow, and the next year will bring the harvest. If this situation is repeated, it is necessary to take measures to restore the shrub - feeding, competent care.
There is also a second blackberry pruning check in the spring after foliage blooming. In an adult plant, fruiting shoots are shortened by 10 cm. The procedure is aimed at increasing the yield.Attention! Reparative blackberries are not cut in the spring. The bush is completely cut off in the fall at the very root. In the spring, the plant starts immediately bearing branches.
Proper formation of blackberry bush and pruning
The formation of the bush in the spring facilitates harvesting the berries, autumn pruning and shelter for the winter. The upright view is spread out on the trellis by a fan. Gardeners divide shoots from creeping species of blackberry into young (this year's shoots) and fruitful (last year's) shoots.
The blackberry, which has an erect crown structure, is distinguished by the fragility of the stems. Form a bush according to the following rules:
- in the spring on the trellis the overwintered whips vertically fix;
- young shoots growing in summer are allowed to the side;
- in the fall, before the shelter, all erect stems are allowed to be pruned;
- of the young side shoots 10 are left strong, and the rest are cut too;
- in autumn, the branches left are shortened to ¼ length, laid on the ground and covered.
The following spring, these whips are tied up to a trellis vertically, and sideways they are launching new shoots. The cycle repeats.
Blackberry with creeping structure of the crown is characterized by good flexibility of the stems. Scourge can grow up to 10 m long. The plant is formed according to the following scheme:
- In the spring overwintered whip spiral wound on a wire. Usually they are allowed on the right side.
- Young shoots are directed to the left and, like a spiral, are wound onto a wire.
- In the fall pruned branches of the right side. 10 strong lashes are left from the left wing, and the rest are pruned.
Blackberry whips overwinter in the prepared trench. In the spring, they become fructifying and set off along the wire to the right. To the left will grow new stems. The cycle repeats.Attention! A healthy blackberry whip can be determined by flexing and also by the shiny, brown color of the bark. A good shoot has elasticity, does not break even when rolled up by a ring.
Pruning Non-Barbed Blackberry (Bearing)
Curly, thornless blackberry varieties are called dewberries. The culture is formed by lateral shoots. Stems are pruned, leaving areas with four buds. In the summer of them will grow lateral shoots that leave to follow along the ground. Berries on young whips will not.
After wintering, these branches are already fruiting. The scourge is fixed to the trellis, and on the ground they let in new lateral replacement shoots.
Pruning blackberry repair
The easiest way is to form blackberry repair bushes. The plant is pruned only in the fall to zero, that is, remove the entire above-ground part. The repairing culture bears fruit only on the stems of the current year.
Blackberry garden pruning scheme in spring
In cold regions, blackberry saplings are planted in spring. Immediately the plant is pruned. Removing most of the stems has a positive effect on root growth. After rooting, practically in a couple of weeks, young growth begins to grow.
Pruning blackberry seedlings in the spring should be done according to the following rules:
- Immediately after planting, the side shoots and tops are cut from the seedling, leaving a twig up to 30 cm.
- The following season, in early spring, pruned lateral stems are pruned, shortening by 15 cm. They will bear fruit. In the fall, these whips are cut out, and in the spring they leave the shoots which have grown in the summer in replacement.
- In the spring of the third year last year’s branches are already shortened by 30 cm. Now they will bear fruit.
The further pruning cycle is repeated from year to year.
How to shorten the stems
Healthy stalks are shortened in autumn by ¼ length. In the spring, they will throw out more flower stalks and bring a rich harvest. The branches are pruned only above the kidneys without leaving hemp.Important! It is impossible to cut the blackberry in the flowering period!
After a spring inspection of the overwintering culture, proceed to sanitary pruning. It is possible to shorten to 1-2 buds only partially frozen out stem. Pruning fully damaged branches carry out the root.
Rationing the number of shoots
A blackberry bush consisting of 7-8 shoots is considered to be full-fledged. After wintering, 5-6 shoots usually survive in spring. You can leave 10 branches in autumn to get the desired result. Unnecessary whip can always be cut in the spring. In general, overwintered six shoots are considered the norm for the plant.
If the spring came only 4 branches, the bush is considered weak. But it can be restored, leaving an additional 3-4 young shoots. When only three branches survived after wintering, the plant is considered quite weak. It is better to remove such a blackberry from the garden or to strengthen the shrub with top dressing.
Blackberry Garter after trimming
Blackberry is more convenient to grow, tying the lash on the trellis. Last year's fruitful shoots brittle. Under the weight of the crop without support, the stems can break off. For blackberries, tied to the trellis, it is much more convenient to care for during the season, the harvest is much easier. Moreover, the plant is illuminated to the maximum by the sun, aired. Garter stalks to the trellis carried out in the spring immediately after pruning. The plant is formed according to one of three popular schemes.Attention! In more detail about what type of trellis to choose, and how to tie up the blackberry.
The scheme is based on fixing young shoots to the trellis in the center of the bush. Old fruit-bearing branches direct one stalk sideways. The fan scheme is more suitable for upright grades of blackberry.
The scheme similarly provides for the distribution of young blackberry growth in the center of the bush, tied vertically to the trellis. Fruiting branches are allowed to the side, but weave them in two pieces. The resulting braids increase the stability of the tied plant.
In the wave pattern, young shoots are tied up to the trellis vertically and sideways over the top wire. Fruiting stems waves let to the sides along the three lower wires of the support.
Care after spring pruning: garter, loosening, watering
Immediately after the spring pruning, all branches are removed from the site and burned. In the damaged bark overwhelmed pests, and they need to get rid of. Cut bushes are tied to a trellis in one of the selected schemes.
The soil of the trunk section is loosened, watering, mulching with peat is carried out. With the beginning of active growth, the plant is fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizer. You can use organic or per 1 m² add 20 g of saltpeter. When forming the ovary, they feed with potash and phosphate fertilizers.Attention! On how to properly care for blackberries.
How to trim the blackberry in summer
Summer blackberry pruning allows you to get rid of the thickening of the crown. Remove waste, intensively growing shoots. If the bush throws a lot of extra shoots, they are also pruned.
Immediately after fruiting, you can remove the old branches, so that the bush put all its strength on the formation of new lashes. In early varieties, extra branches are removed in June. Pruning remontantnoy, mid-season and late blackberry is carried out as needed.
Possible mistakes when cutting garden blackberry in spring
Sometimes pruning blackberries in the spring for beginning gardeners seems difficult. A person begins to be confused in his actions, to make mistakes, which leads to bad consequences.
To prevent spring pruning from damaging blackberry bushes, the following rules should be adopted:
- If before the awakening of the buds you did not have time to cut the stems, it is better to leave them in this state until autumn.
- In the spring you can not cut branches last year. They will form a crop. Crop only biennial, seed-bearing shoots.
- It is necessary to take into account the varietal characteristics of blackberry. There are varieties that are desirable to cut 1 time in two or three years. The annual removal of branches will lead to decorative pomp of the bush, and the berries will be small and sour.
- When forming the crown can not leave fruit-bearing branches more than the prescribed amount. The plant is not able to provide nutrients shoots with a large number of berries.
Observance of these four simple rules will allow to avoid gross errors of cutting.
Blackberry trimming in the spring is a very important event, the purpose of which is to ration the number of shoots, the formation of shrubs and the removal of damaged, frozen stalks. The meaning of this procedure is to increase the yield of blackberry. Perhaps the trimming process will seem difficult for someone. But later, having gained experience, the gardener's hands will intuitively determine which branch to remove and what should be left.