Most fruit trees are self-productive. This means that in the absence of nearby related crops capable of pollinating the plant, the crop will reach only 5% of the potential. Therefore, samoplodnye varieties are highly valued, especially in small areas. If 2-3 apples in a private garden will always be appropriate, then the second or third cherry may be redundant. Lyubskaya refers to varieties with high self-fertility, that is, without pollinators, it can produce more than 50% of the possible yield.
The origin of the cherry Lyubskaya (Lyubka) is not known for certain. This is a sort of folk breeding that has been cultivated in the Kursk region since the 19th century. From there, it spread throughout the Middle Belt, and in 1947, with the submission of the Moscow FSBNT WSTISP, was adopted by the State Register. The first description of Lubskaya cherry was given by Michurin's contemporary, the scientist N. I. Kichunov.Comment! This is a very rare case when a variety of national selection, and even recommended for cultivation not in the whole territory of Russia, is included in the State Register.
Interestingly, the Lyubskaya cherry in the Moscow region behaves quite differently than, for example, in the North Caucasus. The variety is prone to arbitrary mutations, which is why not only in different conditions, but also in neighboring gardens can grow trees that differ in yield, habit, size and quality of fruits. Because of this, the name of the cultivator Lyubskaya is often added to "fruitful," "bouquet," etc.
Usually the variety Lyubskaya is cultivated with shrubs, although in the State Register cherries are listed as ordinary and not steppe. In the northern regions, the small tree is shaped in such a way that it will hibernate better. In the south, Lubskaya cherry can be grown on a trunk.
The variety is a small tree, not exceeding a height of 2.5 m. The trunk is covered with grayish-brown bark covered with cracks. The branches from the trunk are about 45⁰ apart and form a rare weeping crown. This is seen in the photo of the tree of Lyubskaya cherry.
Buds from shoots deviate slightly, oval dark green leaves are pointed at the base and at the end. Flowers Lyubskaya collected 3-4 pieces, white, located on the stem with a length of 3 cm.
Fruiting occurs in late terms, mostly on annual branches. Berries of uneven size, medium or large, up to 5 g in weight. Their form is almost round, with a blunt tip. The color of the fruit is dark red, along a clearly visible abdominal seam there passes a light strip. Pulp cherries Lyubskaya red, juicy, with a mediocre sour taste.
The round bone with a sharp tip separates well, its size in relation to the berry is 6-8%. Green fruits sit firmly on the stem, as the maturation of the bond weakens, but the cherries do not crumble.
The grade Lyubskaya is recommended by the State Register for cultivation in the following regions:
- Central Chernozem;
- North Caucasus;
- Middle Volga;
- Lower Volga.
Brief description of the variety
Despite the mediocre taste and instability to fungal diseases, Lubskaya cherry is grown in private and industrial gardens wherever it can survive the winter. This is mainly due to the high self-fertility of the variety.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
Drought resistance varieties of cherry Lubskaya average. This means that the bush must be watered in the absence of precipitation. Frost resistance is increased, but insufficient, it is difficult to grow a crop in the North.
Reviews of gardeners about Lyubskaya Cherry suggest that its life and fructification in the Central zone is about 15 years, while for the center or the south this figure increases to 20-25 years. This is due to the fact that in a cool climate at low winter temperatures shtamb or branches can freeze out. The older the tree, the harder it is for him to move in the spring.Comment! Kidney varieties Lyubskaya tolerate low temperatures much better than wood.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening time
Cherry blossoms Lyubskaya in the last days of May, for 5-8 days. The fruits ripen at the same time, depending on the region - from late July to mid-August. The variety has a high self-fertility, even without the presence of pollinators, it gives more than 50% of the possible yield.
In the literature one can find the remark that Lyubskaya is a potentially highly productive cherry. What does it mean? If she is well cared for, plus other varieties are placed next to her, the harvest can be very large. The best pollinators for cherries are Lyubskaya - Vladimirskaya, Zhukovskaya, Anadolskaya, Shpanka Early, Lotovaya, Fertile Michurina.
Cultivar Lyubskaya 2 after planting begins to bear fruit. He quickly increases productivity and gives good yields. This cherry is prone to arbitrary mutations, its fecundity depends on the care and place of growth. Lyubskaya can give from 10-12 to 25 kg of berries, the maximum yield from an adult tree was 53 kg.
This is a technical grade. Reviews of summer residents about Lyubskaya Cherry necessarily mention sour berries. It should be noted that the content of vitamin C per 100 g of pulp varies depending on the region. For the Middle band, this figure is about 20 mg, in the Krasnodar region - 11.7 mg. As you can see, in the south Lyubskaya is much sweeter.Important! Of great importance for the variety is the care, including feeding, processing from pests and diseases. The better agrotechnics of Lubskoy, the more yield it gives.
The berries ripen together, do not crumble, the gap between them is dry, good transportability.
Scope of berries
Lyubskaya is a technical variety, this cherry is good for making jams, juices, wine. It can be dried or frozen. Fresh taste of the berries will not please everyone - it is too sour.
Disease and Pest Resistance
In Lubskaya cherry low resistance to fungal diseases, including coccomycosis. Do without treatments when growing it will not work. Among the pests is to provide aphid and cherry saw.
Advantages and disadvantages
Lyubskaya is one of the best technical cherry varieties for the Middle Strip. The advantages include:
- High self-fertility.
- Late flowering - the ovary does not threaten return frost.
- With good care, the yield of Lubskaya cherry is very high.
- With low agricultural technology, the variety still gives a decent amount of fruit.
- Thanks to rare branches and compact size, harvest is easy.
- The stone is easily separated from the berries, which simplifies preparation for processing.
- The berries are not showered, but cleanly detached from the stem.
- The stability and transportability of fruits are good.
- Cherry berries Lyubskaya above medium size and large.
Among the shortcomings of the variety, we note:
- Low resistance to fungal diseases.
- Insufficient frost resistance for growing in cold regions without shelter.
- Sour fruit.
- Stamba Lyubskaya may suffer from sunburn.
The variety of cherry Lyubskaya gives high yields with good care. If the tree is planted and left unattended, the berries will be small.
Recommended dates and choice of a suitable place.
Favorable days for planting Lubskaya cherry come in early spring. It is necessary to “settle” the tree on the site before bud break, otherwise it may not settle down. If the planting material purchased in the fall, you need to prikopat cherries, prepare a planting hole, and planted in the spring as soon as possible.
Place choose sunny, on the western part of the gentle slope. Water to the surface of the soil should come no closer than 2 meters. The soil is needed neutral, manured, ideally light loam.
What crops can and should not be planted next to the cherry
Of course, next to any cherry you need to plant varieties of pollinators. Even Lyubskaya will give 2 times more yield if you choose the right neighbors. Just do not forget that the cherries should be well lit. A variety Lyubskaya has a very modest size, it is impossible that it was shaded by tall trees with a dense crown. In the vicinity you can plant any stone fruit. Not recommended joint growth with such trees:
- Birch tree.
The roots of currant, raspberry, gooseberry, sea buckthorn tend to grow in breadth, with a close planting, they will necessarily compete with cherries for water and useful substances.
To cover the trunk circle from the heat and retain moisture, you can plant under a tree:
- hoof hoof;
You only need to choose a plant that feels good in your area.
Selection and preparation of planting material
Cherry needs to be bought in a nursery or a proven garden center. The central shoot of a one-year sapling should be approximately 80 cm in height, a two-year-old should not exceed 1.1 m. Make sure that the bark is ripe, the variety Lyubskaya has a grayish-brown shade, and the root is well developed.Important! Sapling growth of one and a half meters with a greenish shtamb should not be bought - it is clearly overfed with stimulants.
Preparing the cherry for planting consists in soaking the root with water for 3 hours or more.
To properly plant a bush, follow the instructions:
- Dig a hole 40-60 cm deep, 60-80 cm in diameter.
- Prepare a fertile soil by adding a bucket of humus to the top layer of soil, 50 g of potash and phosphorus dressings each. Add lime to the acidic soil, add sand to the overly thick clay.
- Slightly off the center, drive in a garter peg.
- In the middle of the landing pit, install a cherry. Fall asleep root, constantly compacting the ground. The neck should remain above the surface (5-7 cm).
- Roller the hole with a roller out of the ground. In the resulting circle pour 2-3 buckets of water.
- Tumble the soil.
Subsequent care for the culture
The cherry seedling the first year after planting must be constantly watered, and when the soil dries out a little, loosen. This will increase the flow of air to the root system and retain moisture. Mature trees moisturize less often. Watering increases when Lyubskaya cherry blossoms, 3 weeks before harvesting - stop. In the dry autumn must spend moisture.
The harvest of Lyubskaya is highly dependent on fertilizers. It is best to mulch the soil with a thick layer of mullein, and as an additive to use wood ash. So you will provide the cherry with the necessary amount of potassium and nitrogen. Phosphorus, which is needed less, is also found in organics.
Sanitary and formative trim varieties Lyubskaya spend from the moment of planting. Dry, broken and thickening crown shoots are removed, the rest is thinned and shortened. This stimulates the growth of young twigs, on which the main fruiting takes place.
In winter, the near-stem circle is mulched with humus; in the northern regions, the bush is tied with sacking, spruce branches or other covering material. It also protects the bark from hares and other rodents.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Cherry Lubskaya affect pests, she suffers from fungal diseases. If you do not carry out treatments, the bush will give a low crop, it may even die. The table lists the problems most often affecting the variety Lyubskaya and methods for solving them.
Methods of struggle
First, dark spots appear on the leaves, then the affected tissue falls out, forming holes. On the reverse side appears gray patina. In summer, infected leaves fall.
The green cone is sprayed with copper-containing preparations, after the leaf fall - with iron sulfate
Remove leaves, do not thicken planting, carry out preventive treatments
Bush looks like burned. First flowers and young shoots wilt. Then the whole branches dry up, the fruits rot and crumble.
Cut the affected branches to live tissue, cover the wound surface with garden pitch. Cherry twice treated with copper-containing drug
Removal of fallen leaves, thinning of the crown, whitewashing of the trunk and skeletal branches. Preventive treatment of cherries in spring and autumn with preparations containing metal oxides
On young leaves and shoots appear colonies of black or green insects, sucking cell sap. Affected areas curl and become sticky
Treat cherries with aphids, a lot of them. Well help funds containing bifenthrin
Fight anthills, do not thicken the landing, lighten the crown
Larvae, similar to leeches, covered with mucus, gnaw holes in the leaves in summer
To treat the bush with an insecticide, for example, Aktelik
Carry out preventive treatments, make sure that the crown is aired.
Cherry Lyubskaya more than a hundred years, remains the queen of technical varieties. With proper care, even one bush will give a rich harvest. The best jam can be cooked from this variety.
Lyudmila Valerievna Prokhorova, 55, KolomnaCherry Lyubskaya grows well with us, bears fruit every year. True, we wrap up the branches for the winter with jute - so the hares do not touch, and the frost is better tolerated. Pollinators are not planted specifically - it is self-fertile, and all its neighbors have at least one cherry growing. And the areas are small. Of course, it is sour, but the jam from it is excellent. Georgy Pavlovich Bunich, 61, Krasnodar TerritoryLubskaya's cherry variety grows well, the berries are large, sweet-sour. Everywhere they write that it is not tasty, but I think our little sun corrected the situation a little. Yes, cherries should be sour, we have a lot of sweet cherries. Better variety Lyubskaya there is nothing for jam. And what wine is made of it!