Among many flower growers, especially beginners, there is still the opinion that such luxurious flowers as clematis can grow only in a warm and mild climate. But over the past decades, this view has been completely refuted by many courageous gardeners and summer residents, and in many parts of Western and Eastern Siberia, now you can find lush flowering walls and arches of these attractive flowers. Clematis in Siberia, a review of the most resistant varieties, planting and particular care for these difficult plants are all topics of this article.
Variety of classifications
To date, about 300 natural species of clematis and several thousand varieties obtained in various ways over the last century are known. Such a variety could not but contribute to the emergence of various types of classifications, some of which are interesting, first of all, to botanists, while others are actively used by amateur gardeners.
The basis of the most modern international classification of clematis, adopted in 2001-2002, is the separation of plants according to the size of flowers. Thus, clematis can be divided into small-flowered and large-flowered. The group of large-flowered plants includes plants with a size of flowers from 8-10 to 22-29 cm. Small-flowered flowers have a size of flowers from 1.5 to 12-18 cm.
In this case, they both can easily live and develop in the harsh conditions of Siberia.Attention! Thus, the most reliable varieties of clematis for Siberia can be both large and abundantly flowering.
Why does it depend on whether it is possible to grow this or that variety of clematis in Siberia or not? For gardeners, the classification according to the clematis pruning method, which, in turn, is determined by the methods and time of flowering of one or another variety, turned out to be more in demand.
Those clematis that are able to bloom abundantly on the shoots of the current year, that is, emerging from the ground in early spring, are usually attributed to the third pruning group. Since they need time to develop from zero to a blossoming state, the flowering of these varieties usually occurs at a relatively late date - in July, in August, in September, and its duration and intensity depend on the particular variety of clematis. Terry flowers are found in this group, but quite rarely.
But their shoots are almost completely cut off for the winter, and only a small basal zone is covered. Thus, plants can easily tolerate frosts down to -40 ° -45 ° C and are the most adapted varieties for growing in the harsh conditions of Siberia.
The second group of pruning includes varieties of clematis, which bloom quite early (in May-June) often on the shoots of last year, but may bloom at one-year growth, only at a later time. Naturally, it is impossible to cut off such plants strongly in the fall — they are usually shortened only by a third or a quarter of the length of the shoots, folded into rings and constructed with special air-permeable shelters for the winter. In the conditions of Siberia, this method of shelter may be insufficient, therefore such varieties cannot be recommended for cultivation in areas with severe frosts. But often this group includes clematis with the most beautiful (including terry-shaped) flowers. The way out was partly found in the fact that some varieties from this group are pruned as clematis of the 3rd group, and they still manage to please with their luxurious flowers only a few weeks later than usual. These clematis gardeners-practitioners often belong to the transition group 2-3, although they officially belong to the second group of pruning.Attention! Examples of the most popular of these varieties will be given below with their detailed description.
The first group of pruning includes clematis, which bloom only on the shoots of last year, and very rarely on new branches. These include mostly clematis species and some cultural groups. These clematis almost do not prune before winter, and therefore do not cover. Most of these species and varieties of clematis are not suitable for cultivation in Siberia, but still there are several natural varieties that, according to experience, grow well and bloom even without shelter in the southern regions of Siberia - in the Irkutsk region, in Altai, in the south of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
Among the variety of clematis classifications for a gardener, the division of these plants into:
- bush with small length lashes, up to 1.5-2 m
- curly with a length of shoots from 3 to 5 m.
Varieties of the first variety are suitable for decorating small terraces and even for growing on balconies and in containers. In other varieties, you can twist the arbor, the wall of the house and the arch, up to two or three meters high.
Of course, it is interesting to grow clematis of different colors and shapes of flowers on your site. All this information will be listed in the description of varieties that you can find below. The best, reliable and resistant varieties of clematis for Siberia are presented in the next chapter.
Descriptions of the most resistant varieties
Despite the abundance of clematis varieties on the market of foreign selection on the market, old varieties bred in the countries of the former USSR are still very popular among gardeners. Therefore, a review of the best clematis for Siberia is wiser to start with them. In order not to repeat, the descriptions of varieties belonging exclusively to the third group of pruning will be presented first, and the remaining varieties will be described separately.
Clematis with strong and powerful growth, with shoots reaching 4-5 meters in length, are deservedly the most popular among flower growers.
The variety was bred in the Crimea in 1965. It belongs to the Jacqumann group and blooms very abundantly (up to 30 flowers on each shoot) almost all summer on the shoots of the current year. Powerful shoots with a total of 15 to 30 pieces in the bush reach a length of 4 meters. The diameter of the flowers is about 12 cm. The color is dark cherry, velvet, but the flowers turn pale by the end of flowering.
One of the most famous and popular varieties, known since 1962, is named after the first clematis breeder in America. Liana with strong growth reaches a height of 4-5 meters, and its wide open flowers up to 20 cm in diameter. On the shoot can be up to 12 purple-purple flowers with white-felt pubescence. In summer, in the heat, the color of the flowers may turn pale, but when the temperature drops, it becomes brighter again.
The variety is zoned throughout Russia and has been known since 1961. About 10 shoots in the bush can reach every 4 m in length. Flowers with wide petals of a purple-blue shade, velvety, appear from July to November, up to 15 pieces on the shoot.
One of the earliest varieties of the 3rd group of pruning - may bloom in June. Flowers have a light violet-pink color and do not fade as they bloom.
Shrub type, weakly gangling, length of shoots up to 2.5 meters. But in one bush can form up to 70 shoots. It blooms very copiously (up to 30 flowers with a diameter of 10-13 cm can form on one shoot) and for a long time. The flowers wilt slightly down, the petals are dense, fleshy, of a deep blue color. Easily propagated by cuttings. The variety is zoned in all regions of Russia.
The variety, known since 1967, is named after the Soviet botanist N.I. Rubtsov. Forms a moderate number of shoots (up to 25 pieces in the bush). On each shoot up to 10 reddish-lilac flowers of average size (14 cm in diameter). The center of the flowers is lighter, the color turns pale in the sun.
It blooms moderately throughout the summer.
Variety, known since 1961, named for the employee of the Nikitsky Botanical Garden, belongs to the Integrifolia group. The shrub is weakly interlocking, with shoots up to 2.5 m in length, of which up to 20 are formed in one bush. The flowers are medium in size (12-14 cm) have a smoky blue color. The flowering itself is not too abundant, but it is long-lasting - it can last from June to frost.
Liana with a small force of growth, reaches only 1.5-2 m in length. It is famous for its unusual coloring of flowers, where dark dots are scattered on a light lilac-blue background. Flowering lasts from mid-summer to the first frost.
Varieties of foreign origin
Large-flowered, but at the same time stable clematis of foreign breeding is distinguished by a particular wealth of color gamut.
A variety with medium growth power, with a length of shoots up to 3 meters, originally from Poland. Flowers of light blue with a wave at the edges of the petals are formed from July to the end of summer. Can be grown in containers and on balconies.
A popular variety of clematis with beautiful pinkish-lilac flowers that have a pearly shade. It blooms throughout the summer, sometimes it can be affected by fungal diseases. Forms a lot of shoots up to 2.5 m.
The name translates from Estonian as a home decoration. Petals of purple-violet color have a red stripe in the middle. Clematis blooms profusely from July to October.
The 1987 variety from Lithuania is named after the aircraft. The shoots are small, reaching a length of only 1.2-1.5 m. The flowers of the original two-color color are 13-15 cm in diameter. It blooms in the second half of summer.
Grade 1975, originally from Poland. Flowers are quite large (up to 17 cm in diameter) are formed from July to September on fairly long clinging shoots (up to 2.5 m long). One of the darkest-colored varieties is dark purple flowers with a red stripe.
It is considered one of the best among the flowering varieties. The flowers of purple color almost do not fade, if you plant clematis in partial shade. Up to 15 shoots up to 3.5 m in length are formed in the bush.
One of the most popular and most resistant varieties of clematis. The flowers have a velvety red-purple shade.
Wil do lyon
One of the most beautiful varieties of foreign Clematis, which is incredibly popular. He is also one of the oldest varieties - known since 1899. The bush forms up to 15 shoots up to 3.5 meters long. Large flowers (up to 15 cm) of a lilac-reddish hue have darker edges, but fade over time. It blooms very abundantly throughout the summer, but in adverse conditions of high humidity may be affected by verticillary wilt. Although the average variety is very stable and wintering well in Siberia.
Excellent popular variety of clematis known since 1870. It is characterized by a large growth force, shoots grow up to 4 meters and in each bush up to 20 pieces are formed. Flowers with wide purple-lilac petals are directed to the sides and down. Have a tendency to fade. Blooms profusely in late summer - early fall.
Purpurea Plena Elegance
According to modern classification, this clematis belongs to small-flowered varieties (5–9 cm in diameter), but this does not detract from its merits. Not only that due to the abundance of flowering he has no equal (on one shoot can form up to 100 flowers per season), it belongs to the 3rd group pruning. And flowers - terry, red-purple, blooming gradually, will fascinate any gardener. It blooms throughout the summer and in September. Up to 10 shoots 3-4 meters long are formed in the bush.
It should be noted that among the small-flowered clematis there are also quite a few decent varieties that can be fully grown in Siberia. Although they form quite small flowers (3-8 cm in diameter), they can conquer anyone in abundance and duration of flowering.
It may be noted varieties such as:
- Alyonushka (lilac-pink)
- Riddle (blue-violet with white center)
- Blue rain (blue)
- Satellite (blue gray)
- Khuldin (white)
- Carmensite (red-purple)
- Cloud (dark purple)
All these varieties can be completely cut before winter and they will bloom on the shoots of the current year.
Grades of transition 2-3 pruning groups
Among these clematis are found both varieties of domestic and foreign origin.
Very popular and resistant variety with raspberry - red flowers 12-14 cm in diameter. It blooms from July to frost.
Ball of flowers
Large flowers of this variety (up to 20 cm in diameter) so abundantly cover shoots during flowering, which helped determine the name of the variety. Moreover, flowering begins in May-June at last year's shoots and ends by the fall on shoots of this year. The flowers have a bluish-lilac shade with a purple stripe. Variety of domestic origin, known since 1972.
John Paul II
Clematis variety comes from Poland, 1980, named after the Pope, who died already in modern times. The color of flowers is creamy white with a bright pink stripe in the middle. As the flower lives, the band brightens and merges with the background of the petals.
Clematis variety of Dutch origin has densely terry flowers, both on the shoots of the past and the current seasons. Many other terry varieties of clematis form terry flowers only on last year's shoots. Petals have a light lavender-blue hue. Flowers of this variety prefer only sunny arrangement.
One more terry grade from Holland. Terry flowers in the middle of a violet-blue color can change their color range depending on the growing conditions.
Finally, there are several natural varieties of clematis, which may well be grown in Siberia.
It is one of the most decorative clematis species from the wild. In culture, the species has been known since 1890. It can grow as a shrub up to half a meter, and in the form of creepers, up to 3-4 meters long. It blooms on the shoots of the current year, and up to 120 flowers can form on one shoot. Flowers of yellow color are directed downwards in the form of lanterns, small in size (up to 4 cm). Flowering continues from June to the first frost, sometimes in waves. The ripening fruits of silver color give additional decorativeness to the plants. Well propagated by seeds and cuttings.
Straight (C. recta)
This clematis has the form of a rather erect shrub, individual shoots of which reach a length of 1-1.5 meters. Small white flowers look up and bloom in large quantities in June - in July. Dead shoots before land attack are pruned at ground level.
Planting and care
In principle, planting and caring for clematis in Siberia itself is not much different from similar actions in other regions. As you understand, the decisive factor is pruning and covering the root zone of clematis for the winter. But it is necessary to understand that clematis are most afraid of not even frost, but soaking during the spring rains. Therefore, you should consider the most basic principles of planting and care, so that these plants will delight you for many years. After all, every year with proper care, a planted clematis bush grows and becomes not only more beautiful, but also more stable.
- Choose a sunny or semi-shaded place for planting (depending on the requirements of a particular variety), but with mandatory protection from the winds and with low groundwater levels. When planting clematis near the walls of buildings, it is necessary to retreat 50 cm and prevent water from falling from the roof to the bushes.
- On heavy, clayey, acidic or poorly drained soils, it is necessary to dig a hole at least 60 cm deep and in diameter. Then fill it with a mixture of 50% compost, humus, 35% garden soil, 15% sand, and a little lime and wood ash to eliminate stagnant water and facilitate the flow of air and nutrients to the roots. In the soil mixture is good to add about 200 grams of the finished complex fertilizer, such as Kemira.
- It is best to do so that the landing site of clematis rises above the surrounding space by at least 5-10-15 cm. In this case, all abundant precipitation will be washed away and not stagnate in the root zone.
- Before planting clematis, build reliable supports for them, but so that their thickness is no more than 2 cm, otherwise it will be difficult for plants to cling to them.
- It is better to plant clematis for a permanent place both in Siberia and in other regions in the spring, when a stable daily average positive temperature is established.
- It is possible to deepen a sapling when planting no more than by 7-12 cm, than he grew up before. Better after planting the soil richly mulch some organic material (sawdust, straw, compost).
- Clematis require regular and abundant watering - at least once a week and in intensive dressings. The latter are carried out with the help of organic or mineral fertilizers at least 3-4 times per season.
Before the onset of stable frosts, all shoots (or most of them, if you want to experiment) are cut at a level of 15-20 cm above ground level (3-4 lower buds should remain) and spud humus to the same height. Then they are covered with spruce leaves or oak leaves, and the top is covered with lutrasil, which is attached to the ground.
Видео ниже хорошо иллюстрирует основные моменты посадки и ухода за клематисами в Сибири, а также демонстрирует некоторые самые популярные сорта: