It is no secret that lately the raisin grape varieties have become increasingly popular with those who want to grow this berry. And this is understandable: such berries are more pleasant to eat, they are not afraid to give to children, even the smallest ones.
What is raisin
Quite the high varieties of sunny berries bred quite a lot. Strictly speaking, those with no bones at all, literally units. Even the best ones have rudiments of seeds, but they are so small and soft that they practically do not feel when eating.
All the raisins are divided into four categories:
- The first and second - the rudiments or not, or they are barely formed. The size of the berries they have is small, the weight does not exceed 4 grams.
- In the third and fourth categories - the rudiments are present and can be felt when eating. Their berries are much larger, they can weigh up to 9 g.
Important! The number and magnitude of the rudiments may vary depending on the heat supply of the season: the higher the summer temperature, the greater. Sometimes they reach the size of a full bone, but do not have the germination.
The grapes of Rusbol, which is otherwise called the raisin Mirage or the Soviet-Bulgarian white raisin, belong to the fourth class of seedlessness. This means that there are rudiments in the berry. If you examine consumer reviews, it turns out that at the moment it is one of the most sought after.
For those who have not yet planted a raisin grape Rusbol, we will compose a detailed description and description.
Rusbol grape variety in the photo.
Description and characteristics
The Rusbol grape was created at the All-Russian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after Potapenko together with colleagues from Bulgaria, as its name says. The parents were: Super early seedless and Villars Blanc.
It is not included in the State Register of breeding achievements, but, according to reviews of winegrowers, it is worthy to grow it.
The Rusbol grape has a valuable property for growing in cool regions - early ripening: the first berries are ready to be picked in 115 days, a cool summer can push this moment back to 125 days.
- The bushes on their own roots first grow medium and then become tall.
- Vine ripening early and very good.
- Since the eyes, located at the base of the shoot, are highly fertile, almost each of them gives a fruitful shoot, which can be cut, leaving 2-3 eyes, but most often they are cut by 6-8 eyes.
- Flowers appear early, forming a comb having full volume. They have a strong fragrance that attracts insects, so Rusbol is an excellent pollinator for everyone else near the growing vines.
- Rusbol is prone to crop overload. Rationing bunches on the shoots required. If the inflorescence is large, the end can be removed, the berries will be larger and of a good presentation. If the yield is too high, the maturation of annual gains is delayed.
- Cuttings he rooted well.
- When planting them in the ground, fruiting is observed in the second or third year.
- Rusbol is compatible with almost all the rootstocks, so for vaccination, you can use any, but the best result - if you take a tall stock.
- It is important to break off part of the shoots with their length from 5 to 10 cm, choosing the weakest ones, the rest will grow better.
- The frost resistance of Rusbol grapes is high - up to -25 degrees, which means that the variety can winter without shelter, provided that the snow cover is not lower than 50 cm.
- It is not so bad for him to freeze part of the kidneys, as for other varieties. If suddenly all the buds are frozen on annual growths, perennial wood will give new, and high fruitfulness will not allow to remain without a crop. As a rule, Rusbol is sheltered only in the first three years of life, during which time it accumulates perennial wood. Winter hardiness of the buds on perennial wood exceeds that on annual shoots by 6-8 degrees.
- Resistance to major diseases of the vine - high.
- Rusbol in the south can be grown in high-shtab culture, to the north it is formed on a low trunk, leaving the sleeves of medium length. He also gives a good harvest in the case of short-arm formation.
- Clusters have a large size, on average - from 400 to 600 g, but with good care they can be weighing a kilogram or more.
- They have a conical shape, their looseness is medium.
For grape raisins, they have a very large size: 16 mm wide, 18 long.
- The color of the berries is white, they contain rudiments.
- The taste is simple, harmonious.
- High sugar accumulation - up to 21%, acid content up to 7 g / l.
- Rusbol can be used as table grapes, it is well suited for processing into raisins.
Originators of the Rusbol variety recommended it for cultivation as an uncovered culture for the Moscow region and more northern regions.
There is nothing in the world that could not be improved. That is exactly what the staff of the Potapenko Institute did and crossed Rusbol grapes with two other varieties: Vostorg and Villar Blanc. The result was a selection of improved Rusbol. Let's make its description and we will give the full characteristic. Photo grape varieties Rusbol improved.
What is good Rusbol improved
Taking all the best from his parents, he acquired new undoubted advantages.
- The ripening period became earlier - from 105 to 115 days.
- Bush Rusbola improved has a great power of growth.
- Annual growths ripen well and cuttings root.
- Rusball improved compatible with almost all stocks.
- This grape variety can bring berries in the second year after planting.
- The fruitfulness of the kidneys in Rusbol improved high - from 75 to 95%.
- Like its parent, it can be overloaded with a harvest, therefore it requires rationing.
- Its cold resistance is not worse than the original forms - up to -25 degrees.
- Grapes varieties improved Rusbol responds well to care.
- It is resistant to major diseases affecting grape crops.
- The clusters of the improved Rusbol became larger. Their average weight is from 700 to 900 g, and with good care one bunch can give more than one and a half kilograms of berries.
- The berries themselves have become larger: their length is 20 mm and width is 16 mm.
- They are round or oval, sometimes like an egg.
- Rudiments may be present in the berries, since the variety belongs to the third to fourth class of seedlessness.
- The color of the berries in Rusbol improved white, where the sun is more warm, the berries have brown tan.
- The flesh of this grape variety is dense, harmonious taste. Sugar accumulation is good.
Rusbol muscat - special raisin
There is another grape variety based on Rusbola. This is Rusbol muscat. The authors are the same, his parents are: Bulgaria is stable and Rusbol. The description and characteristics will reveal all the possibilities of Rusbol Muscat, which is depicted in the photo.
He developed the much-loved muscat flavor. Berries are stored better than the rest of Rusbolov, they can turn into raisins even in room conditions. Rusbol Muscat has all the main advantages of this group of varieties.
- It is early ripening. Berries ripen in about 120 days. Variations on either side for 5 days are possible.
- The power of growing grapes Rusbol muscat has a medium or high, if it is not grafted, and own-rooted seedling.
- The one-year increase in him matures well. If the bush is overloaded with a crop, especially in rainy weather, the ripening of one-year growth slows down.
- The percentage of fruitfulness of the shoots is slightly lower than that of the original variety, but still remains high - from 75 to 85%.
- Cut the vine from Rusbol Muscat on 6-8 eyes. Short pruning is possible - only 3-4 eyes.
- It is better to manage the Rusbol muskat grape if it is grafted onto a strong-growing stock.
- Cold resistance at a grade good - 24 degrees.
- Rusbol muscat is resistant to mildew grapes, and treatments are necessary from oidium, since its resistance to it is weak.
- The weight of each bunch of this grape variety is from 400 g to 0.5 kg. They are moderately friable, may be cylindric or branchy.
- The variety belongs to the 4 categories of seedlessness, that is, rudiments of seeds in the berries are available.
Agrotechnics in all Rusbolov is the same as in any other table grape variety:
- Timely and abundant watering.
- In time and correctly carried out top dressing. This is especially important for the Rusbol improved grape variety.
- Mandatory rationing of the crop, and breaking out of excess shoots.
- Forming pruning in the fall and during the summer.
- The first three years, grapes varieties Rusbol desirable to cover.
How to cover
This grape is usually referred to unopen varieties. But if winters are snowless, there is always the risk that young bushes that have not yet grown enough perennial wood may lose a large number of buds. It will take a long time to restore them. Therefore, it is better not to risk, and the first 3 years to cover the grapes for the winter.
Terms of shelter depend on weather conditions. It is impossible to warm the grapes too early - eyes can dry out. If the shelter is too late, the roots may suffer.
- After the autumn pruning of grapes it takes some time to prepare for winter. Therefore, to rush to shelter at the first frost is not worth it. The hardening of the grapes takes place during the week at temperatures ranging from zero to -5 degrees.
- Since the roots of the Rusbol grape are more sensitive to frost than the shoots, the shelter begins with the warming of the root zone. To do this, it is mulched with a layer of humus about 10 cm thick.
- Cut vines are tied up in bunches, bent to the ground and placed on any material that does not pass moisture: plastic, wood, roofing material, sheets of rubber.
- Soil and shoots to be treated with a solution of iron sulfate according to the instructions.
- Then you can do differently. Many winegrowers covered the shoots with earth. This shelter is quite reliable, but there is always the risk of tearing out the eyes from moisture. If you cover the ground with a moisture-proof material, it will be much smaller.
- The best option is a dry air cover. The laid vine is filled with dry leaves or covered with spruce branches. Cover with spunbond, and on top of the film, draped over the arc, leaving at the bottom of the hole for airing. So that the film is not blown away by the wind, it is fixed.
Margarita, Chelyayuinsk In our lands, grapes are a wonder. And how nice it is to taste self-grown berries! I prefer the raisin varieties. She stopped at Rusbole. I grow all three varieties - each is good in its own way. Although these varieties are considered unopened, I do not take the risk and provide them with reliable protection for the winter. For this, the grapes give me at the end of the summer a generous harvest of berries, in which there are practically no seeds. Ivan, Ryazan. I love the sultry grape varieties. Rusbol attracts with its resilience. Several times the eyes strongly froze over, but the high fruitfulness of the variety did not allow to remain without a crop. For our climate, this variety is what we need.
Any of Rusbolov worthy of growing in the garden. These varieties will not only provide tablecloth of high quality, but also allow you to prepare raisins for the winter, which, given its high cost, is important.