Farmers from the southern regions of the difficulties with the choice of grapes does not arise: the range of varieties is very wide. But for the residents of the middle lane, the Urals, Belarus it is very difficult to find grapes that could develop and bear fruit in difficult climatic conditions. One of the most universal and very resistant to external factors varieties is Kishmish 342. Someone knows this hybrid called Hungarian, he is familiar to other gardeners by the abbreviation GF-342 - the demand for this variety of Kishmish is very large. The hybrid really deserves the closest attention, because it has a lot of advantages, is unpretentious and does not need complicated care.
A detailed description of the Kishmish 342 grape variety with photos and reviews of gardeners can be found in this article. Here will be told about the strengths and weaknesses of the Hungarian hybrid, provides recommendations for its cultivation and care.
The Kishmish grape variety 342 was introduced at the end of the last century by Hungarian breeders. The American Perlet and the European Vilar Blanc became the “parents” for the new species. Perlet belongs to the super early varieties of Kishmish, has a dessert taste and lack of seeds in the pulp. But Vilar Blanc is a technical grade with late ripening, he GF-342 took the yield, winter hardiness and unpretentiousness of him.
Kishmish 342 variety description:
- grapes with very early ripening periods and short growing season - for technical maturity, the crop is enough from 100 to 115 days;
- Bushes are vigorous, well-branched and tall - this must be taken into account when choosing a place for planting a seedling;
- the number of fruiting shoots is about 80% of the total;
- standardized hybrid 342 is recommended so that 2-3 shoots remain on one shoot;
- the sizes of clusters are medium and large (400-900 grams), on old lignified vines, the grapes are usually larger;
- oval-shaped berries, medium size, their weight is from 3 to 4 grams;
- the peel is greenish yellow, thin but dense;
- in the pulp of Kishmish 342 there are no bones or rudiments (the greater the load on the bush, the less often there are bones in the berries);
- the flesh of a hybrid elastic, sweet, with light nutmeg notes;
- the amount of sugars in fruits at the level of 19-21%, and the sugar content is weakly dependent on climatic conditions and weather;
- Kishmish 342 grapes can be used as a dessert variety, it is also good for the production of raisins, as it does not contain seeds;
- fruiting grapes stable;
- high yield - in the range of 20-25 kg from each bush with proper care;
- crop transportability is good - Kishmish easily transports carriage over long distances;
- stored grapes can be stored for 3-5 weeks (in the basement or in the refrigerator);
- Kishmish variety is resistant to various fungal infections, which is very important for early ripening grapes;
- berries with thin skin and a high content of sugars are often affected by wasps, so you should think about special traps for these insects;
- The shoots of grapes ripen well, the growth rate of the vine is very large - the bushes grow rapidly;
- frost resistance in Kishmish 342 is good - the vine can withstand a shelter up to -26 degrees without shelter;
- The hybrid does not like thickening and needs regular pruning.
Attention! Harvest table variety Kishmish 342 must be on time. If perederzhat berries on the vine, they will lose their taste and attract a large number of wasps.
Advantages and disadvantages
Fruit Kishmish 342 - reliable grapes, which will give a good harvest in almost any climatic conditions. This variety is chosen by the winegrowers who live in temperate climates, Kishmish has proven himself in the southern vineyards.
The advantages of the hybrid grapes are many, among them:
- resistance to cold and disease;
- high yield;
- decent table taste of berries;
- lack of seeds in the fruit and thin skin;
- crop transportability and its suitability for long-term storage;
- fast growing and strong vine.
As such, the GF-342 has no shortcomings. To farmers who are accustomed to a variety of foreign varieties and hybrids, Kishmish may seem too simple, and its taste is flat, not multifaceted. They note such gardeners and the relatively small size of clusters, small berries.
Important! But the summer residents from the Moscow region leave only positive reviews of the Kishmish grape 342, because there he is one of the few varieties that consistently bear fruit and give a sweet harvest.
As is known, the berries of ordinary grape varieties will be larger and sweeter, the more heat and sun they receive per season. In regions with a temperate climate (Moscow region, Urals, Belarus), the summer season is often rainy and overcast, and Kishmish 342, regardless of this, pleases with large and sweet fruits.
Features of growing
Grape 342 does not cause troublemakers, because this hybrid is very unpretentious and suitable even for novice growers. Variety pleases good quality cuttings, the possibility of reproduction root and grafting method. In order to get a bountiful harvest, the farmer does not have to constantly take care of his vineyard - Kishmish needs the simplest care: watering, fertilizer, preventive treatment, pruning.
The most important condition for the successful cultivation of Kishmish 342 grapes is the choice of a suitable place for it. This hybrid perfectly feels on a site with good illumination, reliable protection against wind and draft. The best place for planting cuttings will be a sunny plot near the wall of a house or an economic building, not far from a high fence.Tip! It is necessary to retreat from the support not less than a meter and ensure that its shadow does not fall on the vine throughout the day.
Both spring and autumn can be suitable for planting Kishmish. In the spring, the cuttings are planted when the soil is well warmed and the threat of recurrent frosts is over. Usually landing at the end of April-early May. If the grapes are planted in the fall, then it should be done at least a month before the start of frost (October is perfect for planting).
When preparing the landing pits, it is necessary to take into account the strong branching and high height of the Kishmish vines. This variety is planted at intervals of 3-4 meters between adjacent bushes or other plants. The pits should be large and deep: about 70 cm deep and 80 cm in diameter.
Important! At the bottom of the landing pit is better to do drainage. To do this, it is recommended to pour a small layer of gravel, broken brick or crushed stone, and put a little river sand on top.
The soil taken out of the pit, mixed with a bucket of humus and a liter jar of wood ash. Mix well. After landing, the vaccination site should be above the ground. Immediately after disembarking, it is recommended to cut the stalk into two buds.
In the first year after planting, the entire care of the Kishmish grape 342 consists in regular watering, loosening the soil and at least once feeding the seedling with mineral fertilizers.
In subsequent seasons, the work of the grower will be as follows:
- Annual pruning of the vine, which is performed in early spring. Kishmish 342 is recommended to be cut to 6-7 buds, rationing the shoots so that at each of them no more than three clusters mature.
- Loosening the soil after each watering or rain. To facilitate your work, you can mulch the soil around the grapes with sawdust, dry foliage or other organic material.
- It will be necessary to water the 342 hybrid infrequently, this grapes need additional moisture only during periods of prolonged drought. Since it is an early variety, its vegetation takes place in June and the first half of July, when there is usually no drought in temperate climates.
- In mid-summer, Kishmish needs to be fed with a phosphate-potassium complex - this will improve the quality of the fruit and help increase the size of the berries. In late autumn, grapes are fed organic matter (humus, compost, wood ash, bird droppings).
- Although grade 342 is resistant to fungal infections, it is necessary to prevent these diseases. This treatment is especially important in the conditions of a rainy and cool summer. Fungicidal preparations are combined with insecticides, protecting the vine from spider mites, leaf wrenches, and larvae of May beetles. In the spring, you can use the Bordeaux mixture or biological remedies for grapes.
- Ripening clusters must be protected from wasps. To prevent these insects from damaging most of the crop, bunches of grapes are placed in special bags, wrapped in a net or gauze. Effective as a means of struggle and wasp traps.
- In the northern regions (in the Moscow region, in the Urals, for example), Kishmish grapes must be harbored for the winter. The vine in this variety is quite elastic, so it is difficult to bend it. But the shoots will have to tie and bend to the ground to cover the special material. Spruce or pine spruce branches, dry foliage, sawdust, agrofibre will be suitable as a shelter. As soon as the snow falls, it is necessary to gather around the site and build a mound of shelter.
You can use the harvest for various purposes: use fresh table grapes, prepare wine and juices, and dry the fruits to get raisins. By the way, hybrid 342 can be dried to the state of raisins directly on the vine. To do this, the clusters must be placed in protective bags and rotated regularly.
Albina Viktorovna We live in the Moscow region and at our country house we tried to grow different grape varieties. Kishmish 342 for many years considered the pet of the whole family. We love this grape for its unpretentiousness to weather conditions, even the past, quite cool and very rainy, in the summer we managed to collect about 60 kg of berries. And this is from three bushes! The fruit has a good taste, the berries are very sweet, there are no bones in the pulp (which the grandchildren like so much). In our area, the hybrid ripens in late July - before all other varieties in the country. Harvest can be stored for about a month, just need to put it in a cool place.
Kishmish 342 - a wonderful grape variety, which is suitable for growing in different climatic conditions. In addition to high yields and good stability, the hybrid pleases with excellent taste and high sugar content in the berries.
This grape is rarely sick and does not need complex care, so it is suitable for both beginners and experienced gardeners. Photos of grapes and reviews of the variety will not leave anyone indifferent - to grow Kishmish definitely worth it!