Acquiring not equipped country plot, the owner has the problem of storing tools and other things. Building a capital shed of bricks or blocks requires a lot of effort and money. How to solve the problem so as not to bring all the inventory into the house? You can quickly install in the courtyard a frame shed with your own hands from lumber.
Things to consider before starting the design of a frame barn project
Despite the simplicity of the construction of a frame shed, before starting work, you need to take into account several important nuances. For acquaintance we suggest to consider the step-by-step guide:
- When drafting a project, you need to properly arrange the frame building on your site. Even if the barn turns out beautiful, it still remains a hozblok. At the entrance to the courtyard, he should not be in the general review in the foreground.
- The project is designed to provide free access to the entrance to the barn.
- It is desirable to locate a wooden building on a hill. When it rains and melts snow, the skeleton house will not be flooded.
- Before you develop a project, it is important to rethink the layout of the barn. In the frame hozbloke can make a workshop, woodshed, summer kitchen and other useful facilities. To simplify the task, on the sheet you will need to jot down a simple diagram showing all the partitions, doors and windows. Large wooden shed, divided into rooms, it is more convenient to provide several doors. Each room will have its own entrance, and you do not have to travel, for example, from the summer kitchen through the toilet to get into the shower.
- Projects of frame hozblok most often developed with a lean-to roof. It is easier to install and requires less material. If desired, you can install and gable roof. Its scheme is a bit more complicated, but the design allows you to create an attic room where you can store things.
- In developing the design of the shed, it is necessary to provide that the slope of the roof is located in the other direction from the doors. Otherwise, when entering the hozblok rainwater will pour on the head of the owner.
Once you have decided on the layout and other nuances, you can begin to develop a frame barn project.
Draw a drawing and determine the size of the frame barn
Taking into account the recommendations from the planning guide, proceed to the development of the project. First you need to draw a drawing that defines the contour of the frame barn. In the photo, we gave an example of a single-sloped roof hopper. The foundation is a columnar base.
Arranging the drawings of the frame hozblok on schemes from the Internet, you need to specify your dimensions of the overall design and each element separately. Sheds dimensions are selected individually for their needs. In general, the frame technology does not provide for the construction of large hozblokov. Our photo shows the scheme of the barn 2,5x5 m. The most popular is the frame barn with dimensions of 3x6 m.
We build the foundation for the frame barn
The type of foundation needs to be determined when you are designing a hobby block. For capital frame buildings with a concrete base pour tape base. But such a foundation is not suitable for a site with sedimentary soil or peat bog. Light frame sheds put on a columnar foundation. Let's take a look at how step-by-step instructions for making each type of base look like.
The review will start with what the phased tab of the strip foundation looks like:
- According to the size of the future wooden shed in the selected area put markup. For a frame hozblok enough shallow base about 40 cm. If there is a seasonal movement of the soil, the depth of the trench is better to increase to 80 cm. The width of the tape is enough 30 cm.
- In a trench poured a 15 cm layer of sand with rubble. The bottom and side walls are covered with roofing material so that the milk from the concrete solution is not absorbed into the soil. Along the perimeter of the trench install formwork. It should protrude above ground level according to the height of the base. To the high sides of the formwork is not arched from the gravity of the concrete, they need to strengthen the struts.
- The next step of the reinforcement with a thickness of 12 mm knit the frame in the form of a box throughout the trench. The metal construction will make a concrete tape strong on a break.
- Pouring concrete solution is better to perform in cloudy weather in one day. Rain, sun or pouring mortar with long interruptions have a bad effect on the strength of the base.
After a minimum of two weeks, and better after the month you can begin to install the frame of the barn.
Now let's look at the step-by-step instructions for making a column base:
- The supports are placed at the corners of the frame construction and at the junction points of the partitions. The thicker the bottom trim can be, the greater the step you can put the pillars, but at least 2 m. If the width of the shed is more than 2.5 m, then install intermediate supports so that the floor covering does not bend during walking.
- To install the pillars under the skeleton of the hozblok, first dig out holes about 80 cm deep. Rubble or gravel with 15 cm thick sand is poured at the bottom. The laying of the pillars is made of red brick or cinder block with the use of a concrete solution.
Pillars can be cut from oak or larch logs with a minimum thickness of 300 mm. They will have to be well soaked in antiseptic. The lower part of the pillars, which will be buried in the ground, is treated with bitumen mastic, and then wrapped with several layers of roofing material. After installation in the holes, wooden supports are poured with concrete.
Erection of all elements of a frame shed
Now we will look at how a wooden frame shed on a column base is being built step by step with our own hands.
The construction of the frame hozblok proceed after the foundation is completely frozen. For this type of sheds, the manufacture of the frame begins with the bottom frame. It will be the basis of the whole structure, so you need to take care of the choice of high-quality wood without knots and mechanical damage.
So, we look at the process of making the frame:
- The concrete supports protruding from the ground are covered with two sheets of roofing material. Waterproofing is needed to protect the wooden frame elements adjacent to the foundation from dampness. From the bar section of 100x100 mm assemble the bottom frame of the frame. Lags from a board with a section of 50x100 mm are attached to it. The distance between them is kept in the range of 50-60 cm.
- Having built the lower frame, they begin to install wooden frame posts from a bar of a similar section. They are fixed with metal patch plates or simply nailed obliquely. The maximum distance between the posts on the frame is 1.5 m, but it is better to install in 60 cm steps. Then each support will coincide with the upper floor beams. With this arrangement, the racks will additionally become the roof stop.
Top rack connect strapping. That is, it turns out exactly such a frame, as well as the bottom.
Using frame technology for the construction of the barn, it is not necessary to use a timber. The frame can be made of steel pipe, angle or profile. The manufacturing procedure remains unchanged. The only difference is that all elements will have to be welded by electric welding. The advantage of the steel frame is that it can be installed without a foundation on a sand and gravel embankment.
It is desirable to paint the built steel frame before covering. If a profile with a galvanized coating was used, then it can be left unpainted.
Making the walls and floor frame shed
The floor can be laid immediately after the manufacture of the frame and laying lag. When building a cold shed on logs, OSB sheets are nailed. This will be a rough floor. Top lay waterproofing. The cheapest material is ruberoid. The next one is a clean floor. It can be made with edged or grooved boards. The second flooring material is better. Thanks to the grooves on the end of the boards, the formation of cracks is eliminated, as well as the strength of the floor increases. How to properly secure a grooved board is shown in the photo.
Before erecting the walls, the frame is reinforced with booms. In the corners put the permanent elements. Timing props support frame racks to avoid distortion of the structure. They are removed only after the installation of floor beams.
Permanent stubs are necessarily needed if the frame will be sheathed with clapboard or board. When used for these purposes, OSB plates can be dispensed with only temporary supports. Before fixing the stitches, you need to align the corners of the frame, and help it to make a plumb or building level.
Being engaged in the independent construction of the shed, you need to be able to properly connect all the nodes of the frame and install the stitches:
- The optimum installation angle strut - 45about. This position of the element provides the best rigidity of the frame. Near windows and doors can not withstand the desired angle. Here it is permissible to install the sticks tilted 60about.
- Hollow stubs can be placed only on the frame of the small hozbloka.
- Docking of all elements of the frame should be tight without gaps. At the corners of the frame beam connect "to the floor of the tree" or "in the paw." The principle of technology is shown in the photo.
- The jibs are not just nailed to the surface of the timber. First, a groove is cut out on the stand and the bottom frame. Its depth depends on the section of the workpiece taken for the boom. The element inserted into the grooves has an additional emphasis, which complicates the distortion of the frame.
After the flooring and installation of all stitches go to the frame of the frame from the outside. When using edged boards with a thickness of 15-20 mm, it is nailed horizontally overlapped to avoid the formation of cracks. Suitable for plating lining or OSB. The owner chooses the material according to his preferences.
The frame barn is warm in itself, since the wood has good thermal insulation properties. If the hozblok will be used in the winter as a kitchen or workshop, then all its elements need to be further warmed.
Work begins from the floor before laying the floor covering. Minvat, polyfoam or expanded clay will be suitable for thermal insulation. First, from the bottom of the log lag a rough floor of the OSB or boards. The result was a cell where you need to put a heater. This work is done even before the installation of the frame struts immediately after the frame is manufactured. If you miss this moment, then nail the draft floor under the lags will not work. It will have to be laid on top, and then stuff the counter-grid to form the cells. It can be done this way, but with raising the floor, the height of the free space inside the barn decreases.
Waterproofing is laid on the subfloor. Mineral wool or foam tightly pushed into the cells between the lags, so that there are no cracks. Expanded clay just fall asleep and level. The thickness of the insulation should be less than the height of the lag, so that a ventilated gap is obtained between it and the floor covering. The heater is covered with vapor insulation from above, then the finishing floor is nailed.
The ceiling is warmed with the same materials, and exactly according to the same principle. The only difference is laying on the bottom casing of the vapor barrier beams. Waterproofing is placed on top of the insulation to protect it from moisture from the roof.
For warming the walls of the frame hozpolok apply mineral wool or foam. The technology is almost the same as for the floor or ceiling. From the inner side of the room, the insulation is closed with vapor insulation, and the top is nailed. From the side of the street insulation is closed waterproofing. Between it and the outer skin they beat the counter-lattice from the slats with a cross section of 20x40 mm in order to get a ventilation gap.
Installing the roof of a frame shed
To manufacture a shed roof of a frame shed, it is necessary to assemble rafters from a 50x100 mm section board. Their scheme is shown in the photo. The finished rafters are installed after laying the floor beams, and fixed to the upper frame of the frame.
To do without rafters, you can make the front wall of a frame shed 50-60 cm above the back. Then the floor beams will fall on the upper harness under a slope. They then perform the role of rafters. It is only necessary to make the release of beams about 50 cm in front and behind the frame shed, so that the roof overhang is obtained.
For a gable roof knock down triangular rafters. In this case, the height of the front and rear walls of the frame shed should be the same. The rafters of the gable roof are attached similarly to the upper frame of the frame.
On top of the truss legs, the crate is nailed from a board with a thickness of 20 mm. Her step depends on the roofing used. The crate is covered with waterproofing, after which sheeting can be laid, slate or other material.
The video shows an example of a frame shed:
Now you know in general how to build a frame barn on your site. The work can be done on your own, and if you are not sure, it is better to invite a specialist.