The cellar in the private courtyard is located under one of the buildings or installed on the site as a separate building. For descent indoors equip ladder manhole or steps. Most often they are made of wood because of the availability of the material, and ease of processing. But even if the cellar is in the basement of the house, inside there is always dampness, mercilessly destroying wooden structures. Under these conditions, the more reliable is the metal staircase to the cellar, which, although subject to corrosion, will last much longer than the wooden counterpart.
Variants of stairs for the cellar, and what should be considered when choosing their design
In general, for the cellar or basement, there are three types of stairs, differing in the material of manufacture:
- Wooden construction is very convenient in terms of manufacturing. However, this natural material is afraid of moisture. Slightly prolong the service life of wood can, if you take for the manufacture of the descent oak or other solid wood. Additionally, the workpiece is impregnated with an antiseptic solution, and then painted. All these measures are good, but only for a short while.
- A concrete descent with steps is an ideal structure for a cellar, but is rarely used in the private sector. If the cellar is under the house, then such a descent is desirable to build during the construction of the building itself. Concrete stairs require a lot of effort and precise design.
- The golden mean between these two structures is a metal ladder, which, if equipped with a welding machine, is easy to make by yourself. Steel is less exposed to moisture than wood. It is necessary to tint the metal ladder only periodically, but even without this it will serve the owner for many years. Only without staining the metal will rust.
To choose the material for the manufacture of the stairs is still necessary, taking into account the location of the manhole in the cellar. In a separate basement, of course, the entrance will be located from the street. In the spring and autumn, wet mud will drag behind the sole of the shoe, and in the winter - snow. So, for a street cellar, you only need a ladder with durable material, such as metal.
In the manufacture of the descent into the cellar with your own hands, it is necessary to take into account several important nuances:
- The shape and dimensions of the structure depend on the area of the basement. For example, for a small cellar under the garage, the only way out could be a small ladder.
- The more often a basement is used, the more convenient the staircase should be. If the dimensions of the room allow, the descent is desirable to organize more gentle and with handrails.
- A man in the cellar will lower the conservation, the harvest from the garden, etc. And this is an additional load on the stairs. Metal is a durable material, but if you take a thin section of the workpiece, the structure under the weight will sag.
- In addition to the strength of the stairs, it is necessary to take into account its width and slope. Harvested from the garden crop is demolished in the cellar with buckets, and even boxes. The descent should be comfortable for a walking person with an overall load.
If the basement is located under the house, then the entrance to it will be from the room. For aesthetics, you can try to make a more accurate staircase that does not spoil the whole interior. Even at the design stage, the configuration, size and method of fastening the structure for descent are thought out.
Choose the type of stairs to descend into the cellar
For descent into the cellar or basement use auxiliary and main stairs. The choice of a suitable design depends on several factors:
- the dimensions of the basement, and for what purpose it will be used;
- how much money you are willing to spend on making the descent;
- frequency of use.
Let's look at a simple example. For example, you will use the cellar often, but there is no money and time to make the mid-flight ladder. Yes, and the room is so small that the design has nowhere to place. In this case, preference should be given a metal ladder. If there is enough money, time and desire, there is enough space, and you will use the cellar often, then here you can stop at the march construction.
Tip! In determining the design of the stairs, pay attention to the layout of the cellar.
Choosing marching constructions for construction, one must take into account the complexity of their manufacture. It will require the development of accurate drawings and proper selection of material. Indeed, improperly selected thin workpieces with time to bend under the influence of gravity, and the ladder will acquire an ugly shape.
Conventional ladders are most often used in country houses. With the help of this simple design organize the descent into the cellar, located under the building. For such basements is often characterized by the entrance through a small hatch on the floor. You can descend here only by a steep staircase at a steep angle. The inconvenience of the design is still a narrow step, on which you cannot stand for a long time.
However, even such a primitive descent can be arranged in a different way. If the basement allows you to make a greater bias of the ladder, and the hatch is not so small, the design set permanently. For comfort and reliability from a pipe weld a handrail. Yes, and the steps themselves can be expanded. For a very small cellar weld removable ladder. Typically, this design is narrow, and made of a thin profile. It is not rational to use thick metal for a removable ladder, since it will often have to be worn on you.
Attention! The removable ladder is not made longer than five meters, and no one will dig a cellar of such depth.
Bottom construction equip rubber heels or steel pins that prevent slipping on the floor. Two hooks are fastened on top of the stairs for fastening so that during the movement of the person there is no overturning of the structure.
The steps in the ladder are welded in 34 cm increments, but no more. On a large span it is not good to rearrange the legs, especially if the person is walking with a load. On small spans the step becomes more frequent, as a result of which fatigue increases. It is good if the steps are made of corrugated metal that does not allow the foot to slide. You can even bolt the rubber pads.
For stationary ladder metal can be taken thicker. Commonly used channel and corner. Handrails are welded from a pipe with a diameter of 25 mm. The bottom of the descent can be concreted in the floor. In another case, the heels of sheet steel are welded to the channel, and then fixed with anchor bolts to the concrete floor of the cellar. The top of the stationary fixed ladder is screwed with anchors to the frame of the hatch or the upper part of the basement wall.
If the construction of the cellar is still in the development stage of the project, then just this time should be used to calculate the mid-flight ladder. There are many variants of designs, and the entrance to the basement will be simultaneously developed for a specific model.
Marching descents to make more difficult, but they have an undeniable advantage over the additional structures:
- gentle descent ensures comfortable movement of a person even with a load;
- the design allows you to make an increased width of the steps, very convenient for the feet;
- a small step determines the convenience of walking.
On the march descent make handrails. Sometimes they are installed on both sides of the stairs. Then they still play the role of a fence that does not allow an elderly person or children to fall down.
When designing a flight of steps from the metal into the cellar, you can take care of its beauty. Beautiful and safe steps turn out from the punched stainless steel. The end of the handrails can be rounded so that they do not stick out with a piece of cut pipe.
If the entrance hatch of the cellar is narrow and you don’t want to add a ladder, then you can weld a screw model of metal. The only drawback of the design is inconvenient movement on the steps with the load. Spiral staircases are difficult to manufacture, so they are rarely used for cellars.
What you need to know when making calculations basement stairs?
To make the stairs comfortable to walk, it must be properly designed. Let's look at a few nuances to which you should pay attention:
- Ladder set at a steep angle from 22 to 45about. Marching descents make gentle with a slope of less than 45about. The width of the steps is chosen according to the size of the free space in the cellar. Although the standard are steps with a width of 700-900 mm. The distance from the steps to the ceiling should be at least 2 m. Then, when walking, a person will not have to bend down.
- The number of steps is calculated by the length of the stairs. To do this, its length is divided by the height of the step, which is in the range of 150-180 mm. One march must contain a maximum of 18 steps. Otherwise, it makes sense to build a construction of several marches. The width of the step make about 300 mm.
- For deep cellars, structures are made of two or three marches with a turn of 90 or 180about.
- The railing is located at a height of 800-900 mm from each step. For their mounting set vertical racks in 150 mm pitch.
Metal descent put on a monolithic concrete floor or reinforced concrete slab. It is impossible to rest on a soft base. Otherwise, it will just plunge.
What you need for the manufacture of metal stairs
Immediately it should be noted that for the manufacture of metal stairs will need a welding machine and grinder. Without these tools can not do. The channel is best suited for the foundation, but a profile pipe can be used. The skeleton of the steps of the march construction is more convenient to cook from a metal corner. A shaped tube of smaller cross section will also work. The steps themselves are sheathed with sheet metal with a thickness of 1 mm. If desired, on the frame from the corner you can fix the steps from the oak plank.Tip! If sheet metal is used for the steps, it is advisable to fasten non-slip rubber pads.
Handrails and racks to them are made of a round pipe with a diameter of 25 mm. Although on the rack you can use blanks thinner, for example, 20 mm. To make roundings at the ends of the handrails, the pipe will have to be bent in production. If this is not possible, then the rounding can be welded from the shop's knees of the same diameter. Only then should the welding joints be carefully sanded to avoid injury to the hand.
The procedure for the manufacture of stairs using the corner and channel
So, for the base of the march design prepare two channels. Their estimated length should be enough from the cellar floor, taking into account the concreting of the lower end to the edge of the entrance hatch. The frame of the steps is welded from the corner with a section of 50 mm. Sheet metal 1 mm thick was taken for plating.
Before you start cutting blanks, you need to carefully review the drawings again. Short elements can be extended into pieces, but the general appearance of the structure will be spoiled. In the case of channel bars, it is not possible to finish the pieces. A bad weld seam under the load can crack, therefore, for the base, you need to take only a solid channel.
The next step is markup. Channel and corner mark according to the dimensions in the diagram. Cutting blanks perform grinder. In this case, all the cut points must be ground with a grinding wheel from burrs.
When all the elements are ready, two channels are laid parallel to each other, after which they mark up under each step. If the dimensions of the cellar allow you to weld the steps on the ground, then the finished metal structure will only be set in its place. But most often the size of the cellar is limited, and even two people will not be able to lift such a weight.
The easiest way to immediately install in its place the base of the channels. Then it will only be on the frame in turn to weld on each step. In this situation, each person is looking for the best way to solve the problem.
The finished metal structure in the cellar must be concreted. Here a pit about 200 mm deep should be prepared in advance. It is good if a piece of reinforced concrete slab is laid on its bottom for reliable support of the ladder. Now it is left to pour the lower part of the structure with concrete and rubble in this pit. The upper part of the ladder is fixed with anchors to the wall. The construction will be heavy, so on the same wall it is better to install two supports from a pipe or a channel supporting the upper part of the stairs. In the final sheet steel sheathe the steps, grind welding grinders and perform painting metal.
Ladder from pipes
The ladder is usually made of pipes with a length of 2.2 m and a width of 70 cm. For racks, two pipes with a diameter of 50 mm are taken. The crossbars will be located in 25 cm increments. Blanks for them with a length of 70 cm are cut from a pipe with a diameter of 25 mm. The first crossbar is welded, departing from the top of the racks 25 cm. Next, follow the established step.
The lower part of the racks grinder cut obliquely. The resulting points will not allow the stairs to go on the floor. From above, two hooks are attached to the posts for fastening, but you can do without them.
The video shows a homemade staircase:
In the manufacture of the cellar stairs you need to think about their safety. So you should not save on materials and neglect the correct calculations.