The greenhouse for growing cucumbers all year round is a stationary room in which optimal conditions must be maintained for the growth and fruiting of this thermophilic popular vegetable. Ordinary country greenhouses are poorly suited to protect cucumbers from winter frosts and autumn-spring slush. They are good only in summer and early autumn. To get a good crop of cucumbers in the greenhouse all year round, it is necessary to provide the most comfortable conditions for vegetables:
- temperature conditions;
- the level of soil moisture and air;
- good light;
- timely watering;
- high-quality top dressing and care of escapes.
Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse all year round is very costly, costs can only pay off when large quantities of vegetables are sold.There are many requirements for a greenhouse used all year round.
The best material for the greenhouse will be polycarbonate. Plates of this material perfectly transmit light, provide sufficient air circulation and serve as a good heat insulator. The most convenient way to assemble a polycarbonate structure on a metal frame. It is built from pipes, on which it is easy to make fixtures for future walls. Before this, the metal structure must be painted to protect the material from rust, because growing cucumbers involves high humidity during the entire growth period.Attention! The metal frame will provide the structure strength and will last for several years.
Heating in the greenhouse
Cucumbers are heat-loving plants that do not grow in low light and low temperatures. It is possible to plant seeds or seedlings into the soil only at the soil temperature not lower than + 12 ° С, and the air temperature should be maintained at + 20 ... + 25 ° С during the whole life cycle of the plant. In the summer and early autumn, vegetables grow beautifully in open ground or in a greenhouse covered with ordinary plastic wrap.
But in order to grow cucumbers all year round, it is necessary to provide the greenhouse with additional sources of heat. The easiest way is to install a furnace in the center of the building that is heated with coal or wood. But this method of heating requires constant monitoring, as the wood and coal burn quickly and keep warm for a short time.
An alternative method is the construction of a special furnace operating on sawdust. Sawdust burns through completely for a longer time than firewood, and the temperature after their complete combustion lasts up to 10 hours. This is quite enough to heat the greenhouse at night.
The most reliable and expensive option is to create a separate boiler house, the pipes of which will connect the greenhouse with the boiler, heating the water. In this case, the fuel is liquid, solid or gas, and the heat source is water vapor coming along the greenhouse perimeter and maintaining the temperature at the required level around the clock. But this method of heating is extremely expensive, so it is suitable only for large industrial greenhouses that supply large wholesale stores and shops with vegetables.
Polycarbonate materials transmit sunlight well, but the light day is much shorter in winter. And cucumbers need bright lighting for 13-14 hours a day. Therefore, the cultivation of these vegetables in the greenhouse all year round will not do without additional light sources. Various methods are used for this:
- Special lamps designed for greenhouse plants. Their advantages are that they are best suited to support the process of photosynthesis in the leaves of plants and are inexpensive, and the minus is the difficulty of installing such devices.
- Energy-saving mercury lamps provide a sufficient amount of light, but they are relatively short-lived and create difficulties in disposal.
- Fluorescent lighting devices can also be used in the greenhouse, but they take up quite a lot of space and look cumbersome.
- Built-in LED lights look great, but its installation is expensive.
Additional lighting in the greenhouse for growing cucumbers - one of the main conditions for obtaining the crop, so in any case have to choose any option. Before installing the greenhouse, it is also worth choosing the most illuminated area, but preferably on the windless side, as drafts and temperature changes may adversely affect growing vegetables.
Before the formation of beds for cucumbers need to prepare the ground. First, remove the top layer 5-10 cm thick to get rid of parts of other plants and possible pests. Then the land is treated with bleach or copper sulphate. It is necessary for the final destruction of harmful microorganisms that are in the soil.
Purified soil fertilized with various minerals containing nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. It is more convenient to use ready-made fertilizers designed specifically for growing cucumbers. In some cases, the soil is additionally fed with manure and bird droppings, but in a large greenhouse, the use of industrial fertilizers will be the best option. If cucumber seeds were planted in the greenhouse, the first shoots will have to wait several days.
When the seedling method of cultivation after the processing of the soil formed beds up to 30 cm and a distance of half a meter between them. In the beds you need to make holes, keeping a distance of up to 30-40 cm. This is necessary so that future cucumber bushes do not interfere with each other.
Before planting seedlings, the well is watered with water, a weak solution of manganese or saltpeter, which will decontaminate the earth once more and create a breeding ground for young and weak roots. Then the seedlings are placed in the recess and sprinkled with a dense layer of soil.
Caring for cucumbers in the greenhouse
Already at the stage of planting it is necessary to provide for trellis, to which long shoots of vegetables will be tied up. They pinch with a length of 50 cm, creating a multi-layered shrub: the lower side and middle shoots need to tie up over the first leaf, the top - over the second. All secondary stems with dead ovaries and dry leaves should be immediately removed, otherwise they will interfere with the formation of fruits.
Large year-round greenhouses are usually equipped with an automatic irrigation system. This is an expensive technology, but it saves time. If there is no opportunity to purchase and install automation, you can do with traditional manual irrigation. You only need to make sure that the water is not cold, especially in winter, when the temperature of the air and the soil is so difficult to maintain at the proper level.
Humidity in the greenhouse should be about 90%, and soil moisture - 50%. But the ventilation system is also mandatory, because high humidity and relatively low temperatures of air and soil can lead to the appearance of gray rot, which can ruin the entire crop.
In the cold season, cucumbers especially need additional sources of nutrients. Water-soluble fertilizers that splash onto leaves effectively cope with this problem. On the market a large number of such products, designed specifically for growing cucumbers in the greenhouse all year round.
Even if all the conditions for the growth of vegetables are created in the greenhouse, it is better to choose hybrid varieties that are less sensitive to frost, humidity, artificial light and other adverse factors arising in late autumn and winter.
The peculiarity of such types of cucumbers is not only their resistance to difficult conditions, but also the speed of fruit ripening, which will allow to collect a rich harvest throughout the year.